(SPECIFIC LEVEL OBJECTIVES)
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: (List)
(Textbook and background material used to develop the lesson.)
(Written in paragraph form.)
(Information presented i lesson; written in outline form.)
(Class activities - description of procedures.)
(Series of questions used to reinforce learning)
(Written in paragraph form.)
People Generally Remember ?**
10% of what they read. Read Verbal Receiving
20% of what they hear. Hear Words
30% of what they see.
Watch still picture
Watch moving picture Visual
Watch exhibit Receiving
50% of what they
hear and see. Watch demonstration
70% of what
Do a site visit.
they say or Do a dramatic presentation. Hearing,
90% of what Simulate a real experience. Doing
they say Do the real thing.
Wiman and Meirhenry. (1969) contains reference to Edgar Dales's "Cone of Experience."
**Question marks refer to the unknown.
What implications does this theory have for instructional techniques?
||Recognition & Recall: ability to remember facts in a form close to the way they were first presented.||Show that you know.||list, tell, define, identify, label, locate, recognize.|
||Grasp the Meaning and Intent of Information: the ability to tell translate in your own words.||Show that you understand.||explain, illustrate, describe, summarize, interpret, expand, convert, measure.|
||Use of Information: the Ability to Apply Learning to New Situations & Real-life Circumstances||Show that you perceive Dan can pick out the most important points in material presented.||demonstrate, apply, use, construct, find solutions, collect information, perform, solve, choose appropriate procedures.|
||Reasoning: the ability to break down information into component parts
detect relationships of one part to another & to the whole.
|Show that you can combine concepts to create an original or new idea.||analyze, debate, differentiate, generalize, conclude, organize, determine, distinguish.|
||Originality and Creativity: the ability to assemble separate parts to form a new whole.||Show that you can combine concepts to create an original or new idea..||create, design, plan, produce, compile, develop.|
||Criteria or Standards for Evaluation and Judgment: the ability to make judgments based on criteria or standards||Show that you can judge and evaluate ideas, information, procedures, and solutions.||compare, decide, evaluate, conclude, contrast, develop criteria, appraise.|
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR LESSON PLANS
Educational objectives have been classified in three domains - the cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor.
The cognitive domain concerns the intellectual abilities and the development of thought processes.
The affective domain concerns emotional development and is related to interests, attitudes, values, and goals.
The psychomotor domain concerns motor activities and skills. Ideally, a set of educational objectives in all three domains would service as a guide teachers in setting up an instructional program.
Knowledge: defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states.
Comprehension: converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives examples, infers, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes.
Application: changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. Analysis: breaks down, diagrams, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, subdivides.
Synthesis: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revise, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.
Evaluation: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, describes, discriminates, explains, justifies, interprets, relates, summarizes, supports.
(over for affective domain.)
Receiving: asks, chooses, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, replies, uses.
Behavior involves Attending - becoming aware, being willing to learn and try a particular response.
Responding: answers, assists, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects tells, writes.
Behavior may involve initially reacting out of compliance, later out of willingness and satisfaction.
Valuing: completes, describes, differentiates, explains, follows, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.
Behavior involves the process of accepting the worth of an object, idea or behavior, attempting to promote it as a value and developing a commitment.
Organization: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes
Behavior involves determining inter-relationships of values, establishing a hierarchy. Initially it involves attending then a response and development of values.
Characterization: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, uses, verifies.
Behavior involves generalization of selected values into controlling tendencies with subsequent interpretation into a total philosophy. Initially it involves attending, then a response and development and organization of values.
Assembles dismantles mends builds drills mixes calibrates fastens nails changes fixes points cleans follows saws composes grinds sketches connects grips starts constructs hammers stirs corrects hooks uses creates locates wraps designs makes
BEHAVIORS IN THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN (Skill, ability)
Observe: Watches steps, techniques or a process rating the finished product or behavior.
Imitate: Follows directions, carrying out steps with conscious awareness of effort.
Practices: Repeats steps until some or all aspects of a process requires little conscious effort: performs habitually and smoothly. INVOLVES OBSERVATION AND IMITATION.
Adapts: Makes modification in a process to suit the particular circumstances.
INVOLVES OBSERVATION, PRACTICE AND IMITATION.