Introduction to Intellectual Property, Fall 2005
University of Akron School of Law
PRACTICE FINAL EXAMINATION
[The following examination was given in Spring 2004. Please
be aware that course content and emphasis vary from year to year. Your
actual exam may test or emphasize different material, and your time
and word limits may be shorter.]
1. E-mail At-home Examination. This is an e-mail, at-home
examination. Subject to the limitations stated below, you are free
to take it at any time and place of your choosing.
2. Limitations. Your completion of this examination will
be subject to the following limitations:
a. Time-spent limitation: five hours. You may work
a total of no more than five hours on this examination (including any
related research and thinking), from the time you begin to read the instructions
until the time you send in your answers. Except under extraordinary
circumstances, such as an intervening family emergency, your work time
should be continuous and uninterrupted. Each question has a suggested
time limit, and the weight of each question for grading is proportional
to the suggested time for answering it.
b. Elapsed-time limitation: 36 hours. Your answers
will be due by midnight, Friday, December 10, 2004, no more than thirty-six
hours after the exam is distributed by e-mail. Late answers will
c. Word limit: 3,000 words. Your answers must total
no more than 3,000 words. If your answers exceed this limit, I will
arbitrarily stop reading after the 3,000th word, and you will lose points
for any and all material thereafter.
If you inadvertently exceed the word limit, it will be to your advantage
to delete less important material and to keep more important material
that is likely to garner you more points. (Most word-processing
programs count words automatically; check "Properties" under "File" or
consult your program's "Help" screens.)
d. No Consultation. During the entire examination interval
(from the time you receive the examination until you submit your answers),
you may not consult with anyone regarding the examination, this course,
the subject matter of this course, or any related case, regulation, or
e. No "canned" answers. These questions are designed
to elicit specific answers in response to specific fact patterns and specific
queries. Nonresponsive material, no matter how correct, cogent,
or even brilliant, will receive no credit whatsoever. I will enforce
this rule even more strictly than usual, in order to discourage anyone
from using "canned" material prepared in anticipation of the questions
to be asked.
f. Honor system. Please include the usual honor-system
oath in your examination. (Your exam number (at the end of your
exam file) and your return e-mail address will constitute your electronic
signature under the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act.)
3. Materials. Because this is an at-home exam, you may
use any written materials that you have on hand, provided they are: (1)
published or (2) prepared by you. You may also use your computer to
browse the Web, including the material posted for this course on the Law
School's Website. However, the questions have been designed so that
the following materials should be sufficient: (1) the casebook, supplement,
and Website for this class (including any materials from it that you have
downloaded, printed out and annotated), (2) any statutory supplement that
you have used for this class (including your own, but no one else's, annotations);
and (3) an outline that you have prepared. I encourage you to make
your outline short, both so it will be usable and so you will have an "overview"
of the course.
4. Strategy for Answering the Questions.
a. Outlines. To the extent intelligible, outlines
will receive partial credit, but you should have time to write complete
b. Additional facts. Please do not assume or make
up additional facts. Although the stated facts may resemble real
situations, all of the stated facts are fictitious (except as noted).
All facts needed to answer each question should appear in the question
itself. If you think you need additional information to answer a
question fully, state what additional information you need, how you would
use it, and how it would affect your conclusions, but please be brief.
Do not waste time answering questions or addressing issues not fairly
presented by the given facts.
c. Organization. Especially in view of the word limit, try
to make every word count. Well-organized answers will receive extra
credit, and poor organization may result in a loss of points.
d. Legal authority. You will receive points for identifying
specific and relevant legal authority, such as a particular statutory
section, subsection, or decision. You may use reasonable abbreviations,
as long as they are clear. For example, you may refer to Qualitex
Co. v. Jacobson Products Co. simply as Qualitex or the "press
e. Fact pattern questions: using IRAC. Most questions
are typical law-school examination questions involving complex fact patterns.
You should answer them by identifying relevant issues and applying
the IRAC formula (issue, rule, analysis, and conclusion). Do not
forget to state a conclusion, as well as your confidence in its certainty,
for each issue and subissue. You should be aware, however, that
a correct conclusion with little analysis will garner you less points
than an incorrect conclusion with thoughtful and thorough analysis.
Try to weave as many specific facts as possible into your analysis, make
and evaluate arguments for both sides, and determine the relative importance
of issues and arguments. Where alternative legal rules exist, you
should state them and indicate which is the majority view, the current
trend, or otherwise the better rule, and why. (Stating why one variant
rule is better than another often involves policy.)
You will not have enough time or space to cover all issues or arguments
in exhaustive detail. Therefore you should focus your discussion
on the issues, rules, and arguments that are most important. Grading
will be based in part on your judgments of relative importance and how
specifically you address the stated facts. Analogies to and distinctions
from precedent, if useful and relevant, will receive extra points.
f. Logical "Trees." Do not neglect to analyze all relevant
branches of a logical tree, even if your analysis suggests that one branch
should be cut off. That is, try to cover all important issues, even
if you think that the resolution of a single issue should control the
result. For example, you should discuss infringement—insofar as
the facts permit—even if you conclude it is doubtful that the plaintiff
has a valid trademark, patent, or copyright. (In other words, pretend
that you are a district court, which might be reversed on any point, rather
than a court of last resort.)
If an issue clearly raised by the facts is easy to resolve, you may say
so without extensive discussion, as long as you say why. You should
not waste time and space elaborating "giveaway" issues. Where the
issues are close or not clearly resolved, however, you should analyze
g. Policy. Please discuss policy only where the question
calls for a discussion of policy, or where discussion of policy is necessary
to resolve a legal issue. You should always discuss the "law" first,
including black letter law, trends, and minority views, before turning
to policy for confirmation or to resolve doubt. Where the resolution
of an issue is unclear, however, you should analyze how applicable policy
affects your conclusion. (The last question here calls for discussion
of policy and should be treated accordingly.)
5. Call of the Question. BE SURE TO READ THE CALL OF
EACH QUESTION CAREFULLY AND TO ANSWER ONLY THE QUESTION(S) ASKED.
6. Submitting your Answers. Detailed instructions for
submitting your answers are at the end of the examination. Please
follow them carefully.
During the 1990s, three separate inventors independently discovered
the same invention. The invention is body armor made from a
special easily-formed plastic which, when hardened in wide strips,
is strong enough to stop bullets. We will call this material
Inventor A, a retired chemist, made this invention by accident. He
had been trying to make a plastic that would retain its color without
fading, even in strong sunlight. He first made a batch of Plastic
X in July 1996 and left it outside his summer home to test its color-fading
characteristics. Its color faded quickly, and he lost interest
in the compound. It was not until the next spring, in April
1997, that he accidentally discovered its strength when his son used
it for target practice with his 22 caliber rifle.
Inventor A made a mental note of this phenomenon and told his son
not to tell anyone, but he did nothing about it until the next summer,
when he made strips of the plastic and fired at them with firearms
of various calibers. After confirming their bulletproof character
in August 1998, Inventor A filed a U.S. patent application for body
armor made of Plastic X early the next year, in January 1999.
Inventor B is a theoretical research chemist at Mammoth Chemical Co.,
a subsidiary of a giant defense firm. While working with computer-simulated
models of plastic molecules in June 1997, she conceived the chemical
structure of Plastic X and predicted that it would be extremely hard
and resilient. From the chemical structure, it was easy for
Inventor B to deduce how to make the compound. She immediately
disclosed her discovery to the director of the research laboratory
at Mammoth Chemical Co., who immediately contacted in-house patent
In July 1997, Inventor B prepared an article on Plastic X for a national
chemical journal. The article provided the chemical formula
of Plastic X, described how to make it, and discussed its use in body
armor. It appeared in print in December 1997.
Mammoth Chemical Co., filed a U.S. patent application in Inventor
B's name for body armor using Plastic X in March 1998. No one
at Mammoth, including Inventor B, has ever made any Plastic X.
Inventor C is a research scientist in Daiichi Plastics Co., a Japanese
firm that manufactures speciality plastics. He made a batch
of Plastic X in Japan in June 1994 and recognized its strength and
resiliency immediately. He could think of no particular use
for it, however, until a U.S. visitor to his plant in December 1995
suggested that it might be useful in the defense industry.
In July 1996, Inventor C made baseball-sized spheres of Plastic X
and sent them to four U.S. manufacturers of defense and law-enforcement
products for testing. Two of the manufacturers did nothing with
the spheres, and one tried but failed to develop a projectile using
them. The fourth manufacturer, however, returned the spheres
to Inventor C and asked him to produce a substantial number of thick,
wide strips of Plastic X, which he did.
In October 1996, Inventor C sent the sample strips from Japan to the
fourth manufacturer in the United States. The latter immediately
wove them into body armor and sent the armor to the United States
Army for evaluation. In April 1997, after six months of field
testing, the United States Army placed a large order with the fourth
manufacturer for the body armor. Neither Inventor C nor the
fourth manufacturer ever attempted to patent body armor using Plastic
On the basis of these facts, please analyze which, if any, of Inventors
A or B should receive a United States patent on body armor using Plastic
Pennwalt Swimgear Co. (PSC) makes inflatable floats, rafts and lifesavers
for children and adults. Alice, an employee and officer of PSC,
is PSC's chief product designer and product manager. After having
a dream about friendly sharks swimming with children, she conceives
the idea of making a new product line of inflatable floats for young
children in the form of sharks. To Alice's knowledge, no one
has produced such a line of products before.
Alice's friend Bob is a retired sculptor who, during his career, specialized
in sea- life sculptures. She mentions her new concept to Bob
and asks him if he would like to prepare a model for the new products.
Bob likes the idea, but he no longer has a studio of his own. Alice
tells him that that doesn't matter because models for PSC's plastic
inflatable toys are sculpted from a special, light plastic foam of
PSC's own design. The plastic foam is available only in PSC's
design studio, which no one uses on weekends. So Bob can work
at PSC on the weekends to prepare a model for PSC's new "shark-like"
line of products.
Although Bob doesn't need money, his children are in financial trouble,
so Bob gets Alice to agree that he will receive 10% of the wholesale
price of each shark float sold by PSC using his design. Alice
and Bob agree with a handshake (and nothing in writing) and Bob begins
Bob begins work by going to libraries to look at pictures of sharks
and to aquariums to see them swim. He spends several days doing
this; then he makes a dozen or so sketches at home. Finally,
we he feels he is ready, he asks Alice to prepare a large blob of
the sculpting foam and begins working at PSC's studio sculpting a
model shark for the floats from his sketches. During the week,
his unfinished work is stored in a closet at PSC so that PSC's regular
design work can be done.
After two weekends of sculpting, Bob asks Alice to take a look at
his work. She likes the size and sleekness of Bob's model, but
she thinks it is too realistic, and therefore too scary, for children.
She suggests that Bob make the fins stubbier, the teeth shorter
and fatter, and the gills narrower and less prominent, in order to
create a "friendly" appearance for children.
Bob agrees. The next weekend, he works on the fins and succeeds
in giving them a stubby, "cartoonish" look without completely destroying
their realism. On the way home from PSC, however, Bob is seriously
injured in a traffic accident. The doctors say he won't be able
to work again for six months.
Unfortunately, Alice has already promised her superiors a new product
line soon, so she cannot wait for Bob's recovery. To keep the
project on schedule, Alice hires Carol, a promising cartoonist and
animator who does sculpting on the side. Alice asks Carol to
finish Bob's work.
Before hiring Carol, Alice carefully explains to her the nature and
history of the project, the need to stay on schedule, and the need
to make Bob's too-realistic sculpture more cartoonish and child-friendly.
Alice shows Carol Bob's sketches and explains how Bob made the
fins stubby and cartoonish without destroying realism. She then
asks Carol to do the same with the teeth, the gills and the overall
shape of the shark. Carol agrees.
As with Bob, the deal is made with a handshake and nothing in writing.
Carol agrees to finish the sculpture that Bob started for a
lump sum of $1,500. Because she lives far away from PSC, however,
she insists on working in her own studio, and Alice agrees. Alice
has Bob's unfinished model delivered to Carol's home studio, and Carol
begins work where Bob left off.
Because Alice doesn't know Carol as well as she knows Bob, however,
Alice insists on closer creative control. Alice has Carol install
a Web camera in Carol's studio, aimed at the sculpture, so that Alice
can use the Internet to monitor exactly how Carol's work is progressing.
Each day, Alice consults with Carol by telephone, asking her to change
this or that. For example, Alice asks Carol to make fewer, rounder
teeth, to decrease the number of gill slits, and to make the sharks
"skin" smoother, with just a few token "scales" here and there. Carol
does as she is told, and the sculpture is soon finished and ready
Production is not as easy as anticipated, however. Changing
from the medium of the foam sculpture to an inflatable plastic doll
imposes certain limitations on curvature and sharpness of lines. Alice
works with PSC's production people to make the necessary changes and,
at the same time, to preserve the "child-friendly" and artistic nature
of the product. Finally, after two weeks of hard work with PSC's
production people, the mold for the plastic inflatable toy is finished,
and PSC begins to mass produce the floats.
Each of PSC's "shark-like" floats is made of iridescent red plastic.
When properly inflated, its shape follows the sculpted model,
with the changes made by Alice to facilitate production.
With the help of in-house artists employed full time by PSC, Alice
adds a few final visual touches. She has the teeth painted
a stark white, and a few dark lines painted on the fins to emphasize
their "shark-like" quality. Finally, has PSC's house trademark,
the word "Pennwalt" in bright, iridescent green, flowing script letters,
put just below the "shark's" teeth.
PSC begins to sell these inflatable "shark-like" floats in three sizes
for children of various ages, and they are highly successful. Within
a month, they become PSC's most popular product line.
Two months later, Dollar Swimgear, Inc. (DSI) comes out with
a very similar line of products. It begins selling three lines
of "shark-like" inflatable floats that are exactly the same size as
There are, however, some differences between DSI's floats and PSC's.
First, the fins and teeth of DSI's "sharks" are noticeably longer,
less cartoonish, and more realistic than those of PSC's "sharks."
Second, DSI's floats are made of a bright iridescent orange
plastic, and the teeth of its "sharks" are painted grey. Finally,
the legend underneath the teeth of DSI's "sharks" reads "Dollar,"
albeit in the same flowing script and same bright, iridescent green
used on PSC's floats.
Alice has hired you as special counsel to analyze whether PSC can
stop DSI from making and marketing its similar "shark" floats and/or
get damages for DSI's past sales. Please write Alice a memo
analyzing: (1) who owns the copyright in PSC's "shark-like" floats;
(2) the probability of success of a copyright infringement action
by PSC against DSI; (3) how any monetary recovery against DSI for
infringement of copyright should be distributed; and (4) the probability
of success of any other reasonable cause(s) of action (discussed in
this course!) by PSC against DSI. Be sure to consider all reasonable
(Short essay questions)
For each of the following trade symbols, analyze briefly, in at most
three or four sentences, how "strong" the symbol is in the stated
application, whether the federal Patent and Trademark Office would
register it on the principal register for that application, and, if
so, whether a showing of secondary meaning would be required. (Assume
that none of these marks has ever been used before in the stated application.)
1. "The Woofer" for a set of ultra-loud "boom-box" speakers
2. "Guillotine" for a vegetable slicer.
3. "People" for a magazine about celebrities.
4. "Absolute" for men's clothing.
5. "HardData" for a database of difficult-to-find information,
to be stored on the hard drives of personal computers.
6. Clear (transparent) packaging for candy and other confections.
Paula has developed a new concept for a cookware store. She
would like to open a small store selling cookware and cooking utensils,
in which "chefs" would demonstrate each type of product continuously
at the point of sale. For example, a man in a chef's hat might
use a garlic press to prepare garlic bread, for sampling by customers,
in a toaster over. Behind the table on which he prepares the
garlic bread would be large bins of the garlic presses and stacks
of boxes containing the toaster ovens—all presented for sale.
The store would offer only twenty or so major products per day, but
the kinds of products offered in this way would rotate from day to
day. Each product sales area would have small, red chairs around
the white service table at which customers could sit while they sampled
the food and discussed the products with the "chef," who would be
knowledgeable about both the products and the food samples. Three
walls of the store would contain floor-to-ceiling blackboard "menus,"
showing the dishes available each day (for free), the products used
to prepare them, and the price of each product.
Paula has prepared a list of elite suppliers of cookware products—mostly
foreign—whose products are hard to get in the United States. By
charging premium prices for their products, she hopes to offset the
cost of the demonstrations and free samples of food. She has
carefully calculated the "right" retail price for each such product,
and her list contains those prices.
Before she can open her store, however, Paula must have start-up capital.
To attract investment, she has described her concept in detail,
including pricing, in a written business plan.
One month after Paula gave her business plan to her first prospective
investor, a new cookware store opened in Cuyahoga Falls with all the
features described above. The same products listed in Paula's
business plan were offered by this store, and the retail prices were
the same as those listed in Paula's business plan, within one percent.
The owner of the new store is the brother-in-law of the investor
to whom Paula submitted her business plan. Analyze whether Paula
has any legal recourse.
Dave has been an auto mechanic for over twenty years. Over the
years, he has acquired a substantial home workshop, in which he experiments
with various mechanical devices.
One problem Dave has worked on in his home workshop is hardening punch
bits. A punch bit—the working part of a tool to punch holes
in metal—is a small, shaped piece of hardened steel with a sharpened
(usually circular) end. Because punches work under tremendous
pressure and build up lots of heat, punch bits wear out rapidly and
have to be sharpened or replaced often.
After several years of experimentation, Dave has discovered a method
of treating certain metal alloys with heat and chemicals to make an
astoundingly long-lasting punch bit. He lent a prototype to
his employer (the auto shop) on a confidential basis, and the employer
found that Dave's punch bit lasted twenty times as long as conventional
Without Dave asking, Dave's employer has written to several large
companies that make machine tools, describing the amazing properties
of Dave's punch bit. The employer also has arranged for Dave
to meet with product managers for three of these companies next month.
Write a short memo advising Dave what he should do to protect
his ability to profit from his discovery.
Acme Personal Care Products Co. has developed a product it calls the
"Vibra-Sonic" Massager. The product is a hand-held personal
massaging device with a rechargeable battery. It has irregular
rubber wheels that rotate to give a massaging effect. It also
uses ultrasonic generators to inject ultrasonic energy into sore muscles.
This product came out of the prototype phase six months ago, and market
testing since that time have revealed phenomenal consumer interest.
Already Acme has testimonials from scores of market-testing
customers, saying how quickly this product soothed their sore muscles
and put them back in shape for renewed athletics.
In anticipation of a major product release next month, Acme has spent
over $200,000 preparing such things as radio and magazines advertisements,
handbills, instructions sheets, and boxes and packaging for the new
product. All of these items give great emphasis to the trademark
Unfortunately, Acme has never had trademark or IP counsel. Its
management has come to you, on the eve of its product rollout, to
"make sure we can protect our product's name." You commissioned
a quick trademark search, and the search revealed the following:
1. Procter and Gamble Co. has filed an intent-to-use application
to register the trademark "Vibra-Sonic" on the principal register
at the federal Patent and Trademark Office for "ultrasonic toothbrushes
and teeth-cleaning products." The date of the application
is January 13, 2004.
2. Bose Corp. has registered, on the principal register at
the federal Patent and Trademark Office, the trademark "Vibra-Sound"
for "acoustic speakers and stereo and quadrophonic audio equipment."
The date of the registration is April 20, 1987. The
records also show that this trademark became "incontestable" in
Your preliminary research on the Internet has determined that Bose
Corp. is currently using its mark on the listed products, but you
have been unable to find any evidence that Procter and Gamble has
used its mark. You doubt that either company would be willing
to sell or license its registration or its mark to Acme.
Write a memo advising Acme what it should do. Be sure to consider
all reasonable alternatives, explain their respective risks and benefits,
make a recommendation, and state what, if any, additional research
you might do to clarify the risks. As you write your memo, consider
the value of tact in establishing a good client relationship.
Your closest friend is about to invest her life savings—and possibly
mortgage her house!—to start a new business. She doesn't have
time to tell you much about the nature of her business, and it will
be a long time, if ever, before she can afford your legal services
on a paying basis.
All you know about her start-up business is that it is unlikely to
produce anything patentable. Like most businesses, however,
it will produce and use copyrighted material, will have a trademark
or a trade name, and may have trade secrets, if only a customer list.
Your friend knows nothing about intellectual property and had heard
that you are an expert in that field. She has asked you to make
a short list things she should keep in mind in order to avoid major
mistakes and to realize significant opportunities under the intellectual
property laws. Write that list for her, listing no more than
a dozen points, with no more than a sentence or two for each.
"Our nation's intellectual property laws were born in controversy.
Thomas Jefferson wanted to include a ban on all monopolies
in the Bill of Rights. He and the other Framers knew from
English experience, as economists now know with mathematical precision,
that monopoly produces higher prices, lower output, reduced innovation,
and poorer service, as compared to competition. Yet James
Madison and others argued for patent and copyright laws on the ground
that they would encourage innovation and creativity. While
in France and occupied with affairs of state, Jefferson relented,
and so our Patent and Copyright Clause was born."
"Unlike England, we have no Statute of Monopolies to reveal the
proper relationship of competition and intellectual property, as
rule and exception. It took another century for us to enshrine
the principles of competition law, now recognized throughout the
industrialized world, in our Sherman [Antitrust] Act of 1890."
"Private interests used this ‘head start' for intellectual property
to great advantage. Over the years the scope of our intellectual
property laws have expanded without any apparent limit. We
now have patents for pedestrian computer programs to do simple arithmetic
and for business ‘methods,' which used to be subject to the rule
of free competition. A recent article reports patents on a
method of swallowing a pill, as well as sports methods and procedures
of psychological analysis."
"Patent law is not the only field to show the stretch marks of this
expansion. Copyright now covers products from dinner plates
to thank-you notes and prevents the disassembly of a lawfully purchased
book to sell pictures within it. Trademark law covers the
aesthetic design of restaurants and the color of dry-cleaning press
pads. And judicial decisions, supposedly based on the common
law (or on state statutes derived from the common law), have granted
monopolies for such things as stock-index formulas and a certain
way of pronouncing a celebrity's common first name. No doubt
children will soon have to get patent licences and releases under
the law of ‘misappropriation' in order to do their sums."
"All these recent developments have little to do with fostering
human innovation and creativity, as Madison had hoped, and everything
to do with the natural human desire to rest from the hard game of
competition. The quiet life of monopoly is infinitely attractive
to those who must daily fight the fierce headwinds of business rivalry.
Yet as the English Parliament understood almost four centuries
ago, free competition is what makes free markets work."
"That's why we have anti-trust laws. That's why Europe and
Japan have competition law and anti-monopoly law, respectively.
The whole developed world knows that competition—even when
it has to be compelled by law—is the key to societal success, and
that the exclusive monopolies of intellectual property are limited
exceptions, which must be carefully confined to their purpose."
"In our own country, Thomas Jefferson understood this point over
two centuries ago. He relented in his opposition to monopoly
only for a limited purpose, namely, ‘to Promote the Progress of
Science and useful Arts.' Yet the last few decades have seen
an expansion in intellectual property the likes of which Madison,
let alone Jefferson, never would have imagined. Whereas once the
motto of intellectual property might have been Jefferson's goal
of giving ingenuity ‘a liberal encouragement,' today it is better
phrased as ‘pigs at the trough.'"
Write an essay analyzing and approving or criticizing this passage.
Be sure to address all aspects of the passage, including: (1)
its underlying assumptions about the rapid recent expansion of the
scope of IP protection, the failure of that expansion to track the
traditional purpose of IP law, and the relationship between the antitrust
and IP laws; (2) its implied prediction of consequence—that the expansion
will, in the long run, have negative effects on our economy, and (3)
its judgment as to what is good policy and where the line between
prohibiting monopoly and protecting IP should be drawn. Your
grade will depend not upon your point of view, but upon how carefully
and specifically you support and document your analysis, with reference
to the statutes, cases, constitutional provisions, and policies that
we have studied. The more specific and focused your analysis,
the better your grade will be.
END OF EXAMINATION
(See next page for submission instructions)
INTRODUCTION TO INTELLEECTUAL PROPERTY, FALL 2004
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUBMITTING YOUR ANSWERS
Please take all of the following steps in submitting your answers,
before the deadline for submission:
1. Include honor-code statement. Make sure that
your honor-code statement appears at the end of your answer file.
(Your examination number and e-mail header will constitute your
signature under UETA.)
2. Include your examination ID number. Type your
examination ID number at the end of your answer file and double-check
it. To avoid accidental breach of anonymity, make sure that
your answer file contains no other identifying information.
3. Spell-check and finalize. Spell-check your answer
file and make any necessary changes. Check world length and
modify as necessary.
4. Save answer file with anonymous ID. Save your
answer file on your hard drive, with your honor-code statement and
examination ID number at the end of the file. When you save
your file, use the file name "2005 Intro to IP Exam" and no other.
(If you use another file name, anonymity may be compromised.)
5. Convert answer file to Rich Text Format. If
necessary, save your answer file again in Rich Text Format. (Use
the "Save As" feature of your Word Processor; then click on the down
arrow to the right of the "File Type" field in the "Save As" dialogue
box and select the "Rich Text Format (RTF)" option. Be sure
to verify that this option appears in the "File Type" field before
you click the "Save" button. Then check to see that a file with
the name "2005 Intro to IP Exam.rtf" and a plain logo appears in your
file folder. You may have to click on "View" : "Details" to
see the .rtf file extension.)
6. Attach your RTF answer file to an e-mail message. Send
your answer file, in .rtf format, as an e-mail attachment to your
message, not as part of the message itself. The "Subject" line
for your e-mail message should be "2005 Intro to IP Exam," and the
text of the message should read "Attached are my answers."
(I will use your e-mail cover messages only to check that everyone
has submitted answers. I will not grade any exam until an assistant
has "anonymized" the answers by separating the attached files from
the e-mail messages and sending the attachments to me with no identifying
information other than the examination ID number included in each
file at the end.)
7. Submit your answers by e-mail. Send your cover
message, with your .rtf answer file attached, to all of the following
(To avoid typing errors, please cut and paste this list into your
e-mail program's "address" or "TO" field; then double-check all addresses
and punctuation. You may wish to prepare an address list in
8. Print and retain a paper copy of your answer file. Immediately
after sending your e-mail message, print out a copy of your answers
and staple the pages together. Then sign and date your answers
and record the exact time of your printout on the title page. (If
there is an e-mail mixup, this paper copy will serve to demonstrate
what you wrote and when, in accordance with the honor system.)
HAVE A HAPPY HOLIDAY SEASON AND A GOOD WINTER BREAK!