7400.685-080 - Research Methods in FCS
School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Spring Semesters - Tuesday Evenings 5:20-7:55pm in 209 Schrank Hall South
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.
Key Terms - Part 3
  1. Case study: An intensive study of a specific individual or specific context.
  2. Content analysis: The analysis of text documents. The analysis can be quantitative, qualitative, or both. Typically, the major purpose of content analysis is to identify patterns in text.
  3. Data audit: A systematic assessment of data and data collection procedures conducted to establish and document the credibility of data collection processes and potential inaccuracies in the data.
  4. Direct observation: The process of observing a phenomenon to gather information about it. This process is distinguished from participant observation in that a direct observer does not typically try to become a participant in the context and does strive to be as unobtrusive as possible so as not to bias the observations.
  5. Ethnography: Study of a culture using qualitative field research.
  6. Field research: A research method in which the researcher goes into the field to observe the phenomenon in its natural state.
  7. Grounded theory: An iterative qualitative approach that includes initial generative questions, gathering qualitative data, identifying theoretical concepts, verifying emerging concepts in data, reconsidering theoretical concepts, and so on, until a detailed theory that is grounded in observation is achieved.
  8. Indirect measure: An unobtrusive measure that occurs naturally in a research context.
  9. Participant observation: A method of qualitative observation in which the researcher becomes a participant in the culture or context being observed.
  10. Phenomenology: A philosophical perspective as well as an approach to qualitative methodology that focuses on people’s subjective experiences and interpretations of the world.
  11. Qualitative data: Data in which the variables are not in a numerical form, but are in the form of text, photographs, sound bytes, and so on.
  12. Qualitative measures: Data not recorded in numerical form
  13. Secondary analysis: Analysis that makes use of already existing data sources.
  14. Unobtrusive measures: Methods used to collect data without interfering in the lives of the respondents.
  15. Unstructured interviewing: An interviewing method that uses no predetermined interview protocol or survey and in which the interview questions emerge and evolve as the interview proceeds.
  1. Control group: A group, comparable to the program group that did not receive the program.
  2. Experimental group: the "PROGRAM" group that receives "treatment".
  3. Covariation: A criterion for establishing a causal relationship that holds the cause and effect must be related or co-vary.
  4. Instrumentation threat: A threat to internal validity that arises when the instruments (or observers) used on the posttest and the pretest differ.
  5. Plausible alternative explanation: Any other cause that can bring about an effect that is different from your hypothesized or manipulated cause.
  6. Posttest-only nonexperimental design: A research design in which only a posttest is given. It is referred to as non-experimental because no control group exists.
  7. Posttest-only randomized experiment: An experiment in which the groups are randomly assigned and receive only a posttest.
  8. Pre-post nonequivalent groups quasi-experiment: A research design in which groups receive both a pre- and posttest, and group assignment is not randomized, and therefore, the groups may be nonequivalent, making it a quasi-experiment.
  9. Regression artifact: A statistical phenomenon that causes a group’s average performance on one measure to regress toward or appear closer to the mean of that measure than anticipated or predicted. Regression occurs whenever you have a nonrandom sample from a population and two measures that are imperfectly correlated.
  10. Resentful demoralization: A social threat to internal validity that occurs when the comparison group knows what the program group is getting and becomes discouraged or angry and gives up.
  11. Selection bias: Any factor other than the program that leads to posttest differences between groups.