7400.362 - Family Life Management
School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.
for Exam 2
- Your first exam will be over the study questions
below. Exam questions will be taken from this list.
Topic 5 Questions
2. __________________ is the process
of making a choice between
two or more alternatives.
3.Good decisions meet several
criteria, including all but which
of the following?
4. ________________guide decisions.
5. The desire to _________________ positive outcomes and to minimize mistakes motivates individuals to make the best decisions that they can. a.maximize b.exploit c.implement d.accelerate
6. In the acronym DECIDE, the first
0 stands for:
7. In consumer decision making, the step called ____________ refers to The beliefs about the anticipated performance of a product or a service. a. reactive b. maintaining the status quo c. implementation d. satisficing.
8. After the decision process has been completed, the decision maker looks back to judge how successful the decision was. In consumer decision making, this step is called: a. prepurchase expectations. b. alternative sorting c. postpurchase dissonance. d. prioritizing.
9. In the _______________ model of decision making, each decision builds on the previous one, forming a sequence of decisions, such as the steps involved in preparing a meal. a. Central-satellite b. Foa & Foa c. Elbing d. Chain
10. In the __________ model of
decision making, a major decision
is surrounded by decisions that are offshoots of the central decision.
11. One of the most important
decision rules is the necessity to
optimize or the usefulness of decisions.
12. In the diagram of the decision
tree, what lies at its base (the
root of all decisions)?
13. The people who influence an
individual or provide guidance or
advice are members of that person's
14. In a study of college students'
smoking behavior, in more recent
years students said the main reasons they smoked were:
15. Indecisiveness can be a major problem. The textbook listed some possible causes of indecisiveness. Which of the following was not on this list? a.fear of the unknown b.fear of making a wrong decision or mistake c.boredom d.lack of "good judgment"
16. The _____________ refers to when
people are promoted beyond
their level of competence.
18. According to a Table and discussion in the book regarding "who does what in the home men are more likely than women to do all but which of the following? a.yard work b.make minor repairs c.pay bills d.keep the car in good condition
19. The _________Model demonstrates
that decisions are influenced
by many factors and considerations and illustrates how two individuals
in a family make decisions given their reference groups, alternatives,
and environmental constraints.
20. According to a classic study by Blood and Wolfe, the partner who commands the greater amount of material resources will achieve _______________ in spousal decision making. a.greater power b.equality c. emotional bonding d.lesser power
21. According to the textbook, which
of the following statements
a. Family decision making on purchases can involve conflict.
b. Children have a significant influence on their parents' buying habits.
c. In management, decision making and problem solving mean the same thing; they are interchangeable.
d. Looking within oneself for information about decisions is called an internal search.
22. A person weighing uncertainty
and risk is judging the ____________,
or likelihood, of a good or bad outcome.
23. An _________________ involves
gathering information from family,
friends, other people, and the media.
25. What is the Peter Principle? In employment situations, how can it be avoided? Describe a situation in which you have observed the Peter Principle in action.
sTopic 6 Questions
1.Planning needs change over the
life cycle. For example, the oldest
members of ___________ turned 50 in 1996, so a large segment of the
population is seriously planning for retirement.
2. A ________ is a detailed schema,
program, strategy, or method
worked out before-hand for the accomplishment of a desired end state.
3. _____________ is a thinking and
involving a series of decisions.
4. The first step in the planning
process model diagrammed in the
5.When short-term concerns create
priorities and deadlines that
absorb managerial attention and energy at the expense of long range
this phenomenon is known as:
6. After purchasing a camera, an __________________ person might be more inclined to ask for help from the camera store owner or friends. a.introverted b.extroverted c.experienced d.irritating
7. Which of the following is not one
of the main aspects of motivation?
8. According to Maslow's theory of
the hierarchy of needs, a person
attempts to satisfy a more basic need before directing behavior to
needs. He proposed that the typical adult satisfies which of the
9. __________ refers to a person's
staying power; it is the personality
trait of not giving up when faced with adversity.
10. ________________ are another
important part of the planning
process. They are defined as quantitative and/or qualitative criteria
reconcile resources with demands and serve as measures of values and
11. __________________ refers to the specification of sets of time-bounded projected activities which are sufficient for the achievement of a desired goal. a.Substantiating b.Scheduling c.Strategies d.Clarifying
12. ______________ occurs when two
or more activities take place
at the same time.
13. ____________ activities involve
a combination of activities
that require intermittent and/or concurrent attention.
14. Which of the following is not
one of three types of plans described
in the text?
15. _______________ are backup or
secondary plans to be used in
case the first plan does not work out.
16. Which of the following is an
example of proactive language?
17. Which of the following is an
example of reactive language?
18. __________ people are often overly affected by outside forces, such as changes in the weather or the bad attitudes of their co-workers. a. Proactive b. Reactive c. Obsessive d. Compulsive
19. Possible blocks to successful
implementation include all but
which of the following?
20. ______________ is an activity in
which individuals or families
"read the world" by looking for signals or clues.
21. _______________ is a planning
technique used by advertisers,
movie screenwriters, and television scriptwriters to show the sequence
of the main scenes in a commercial, movie, or lV show. The same
can be used by individual and family resource managers.
23. What is the difference between proactive and reactive styles? Give examples of reactive and proactive language and approaches to planning.
24. Describe the roles of implementing and evaluating in the planning process. Define each and explain their function.
25. Describe the storyboarding
technique. Who normally uses it?
How can individuals and families use this technique?
Topic 7 Questions
1.The average person spends approximately ___________ percent of his or her waking hours in some form of communication -- writing, reading, speaking and listening. a 10 b. 25 c. 70 d. 95
2.Effective communicators have a
number of characteristics, including
all but which of the following?
3. ______________ is the process of
putting thought into symbolic
4. The receiver of a message is the
5. The advertisement by General Foods that says: "Turn a stormy night into a quiet evening with the after-dinner-mint taste of chocolaty Irish Mocha Mint" appeals to the listeners: a.senses. b.intellect. c.emotions. d.personality.
6. In ______________ the listener
evaluates or challenges what is
7.An engagement ring is an example of a.a visible symbol. b.an abstract symbol. c.a critical message. d.a verbal symbol.
8. ______________ is the distance between speakers. a. Artifacts b. Proxemics c. Calisthenics d. Kinesics
9. Radio, television, magazines,
newspapers, and signs are _____________
of mass communication.
10. Which of the following is not an example of external noise? a. an airplane overhead b. a howling wind c. lightning d. daydreaming
11. Which of the following
statements is incorrect?
12. Negotiations to remedy
communication conflict are known as:
13. Adding a second child to a
two-parent family results in ___________
potential communication interactions.
14. Researchers have identified
several common destructive messages
and tactics that characterize ineffective communication within
Which of the following is an example of a destructive message or
15. _____________ conflicts focus on
the issue or the problem rather
than on the other person's deficits.
16. According to Deborah Tannen,
author of You Just Don't Understand,
which of the following is true?
17. According to psychiatrist Aaron
Beck, which of the following
statements is true?
18. According to Deborah Tannen,
author of You Just Don't Understand,
young girls are more likely than boys to say ___________ in their
19. There are four distance zones
common in the United States. Business
tends to be conducted:
20. Groups vary in size, but research indicates that effective group size (in terms of communication) ranges from 3 to 13, with the ideal being _______ a.3 b.5 c.10 d.12
21. In _________ all group members
suggest ideas -- no matter how
seemingly ridiculous or strange.
22. As consumers, individuals are
constantly bombarded with information.
Some of this information is ____________, such as through billboards,
messages, and loudspeakers at K-marts.
23. Faith Popcorn, a predictor of
trends, noted that ______________
(the desire to remain at home as a place of coziness, control, peace,
and protection) is already being facilitated by technology such as
recorders and microwave ovens.
25. Do you agree or disagree with
Theodore Levitt's statement that
the more information you are exposed to, the less meaning it seems to
Topic 8 Questions
2. According to the textbook, the
world population is a bout 6 billion,
and has become the center of the greatest concentrations of people.
3. According to the textbook, human resources can be divided into three main categories. Which of the following is not one of the categories? a. cognitive b. financial c. affective d. psychomotor
4. The first U.S. census was taken
5. Which of the following statements
6. ______________ is the study of
characteristics of human populations.
7. Population figures are affected
by three main factors. Which
of the following was not listed in the textbook?
8. The yearly number of births per 1000 women of childbearing age is called: a.mortality b.fertility rate c.immigration d.demographic rate
9. In U.S. history, there have been
periods of fast and slow population
growth. Which of the following was a time of slow growth?
10. The nation with the lowest fertility rate is: a. Nigeria b. Pakistan c. Ireland d. Spain
11. Which of the following is true
about life expectancy?
12. ____________ are the fastest
growing segment of the U.S. population.
13. According to the textbook, which
of the following statements
is false about the U.S. population?
a. There are 505 federally recognized Indian tribes.
b. Hispanics are the largest minority group.
c. Asian Americans constitute 3 to 4 percent of the nation's population
d. The average African-American family has 3.5 members.
14. The median age of first
marriages in the U.S. is:
15. The number of households is
increasing in the United States
and the number of persons per household is:
16. According to a survey conducted
by the U.S. Census Bureau, the
typical householder moves every ___________
17.Certain states have more mobile
populations than others. has
the fewest number of natives (residents born in the state).
18. Based on information in the
textbook, which of the following
statements is false?
a.Dual-earner families usually report that they are happy and satisfied.
b.Managing change is inherently messy.
c.The terms dual income and dual career mean the same thing.
d.A Yale University study found that many parents prefer home-based care for infants and toddlers and child-care centers for older children.
19. Nationally, women are:
a.having children at a younger
21. According to the textbook, which
of the following statements
a. Demographers have found that men are more likely than women to return to their parents' home after the age of 25.
b. Many middle-aged Americans, aged 45 to 64 (called the "sandwich generation), are caring for both their children and their elderly parents.
c. There have been homeless people in the United States since the end of the Vietnam War.
d. Often the word disability is used as a synonym for handicap, but the terms are different.
22. ________________ are moneys or
services given for which the
recipient does not directly pay.
23. Because of the lack of adequate
housing and other daily living
problems, over time many very low-income families become pessimistic
the future and feel that they have little control over their
This feeling is termed __________
25. Discuss the special management problems or concerns of elderly people, the homeless, and individuals with disabilities. What do they need?
2. Time is a ________________. a. resource b. value c. goal d. decision
is the time that an individual cannot control totally by himself or
4. According to the
textbook, child expert and author David Elkind points out that:
a. Children today do not have enough to do
b. Children today have too much free time
c. Children today are overcommitted and are growing up too fast and too soon.
d. Children today spend too much time in unorganized activities.
6. In Alan Lakein’s book How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life, he emphasizes that daily time use should be directly related to: a. resources. b. values. c. attitudes. d. goals
the process where sensory stimulation is translated into organized
influence a person’s estimation of time. Which of the following was not
appears to be a factor in time perception. According to the text, which
a. Elderly people tend to find time longer than younger people.
b. Children’s time estimates become more accurate after the age of seven or eight.
c. Young children do not understand time the way an adult does.
d. Middle-aged people are the most accurate in their time perceptions.
11.____________ are selected groups of people who are questioned by a discussion leader or moderator about what they think about different topics, for example products and services. a. Focus groups b. Access groups c. Booster groups d.Total quality circles
12. The amount of
Social Security retired
people receive is based on:
14. According to E. T. Hall, the author of The Silent Language, there are three anthropological models of time. Which of the following is not one of them? a. linear-separable b. circular-traditional c. spatial-sequential d. procedural-traditional
15. Most Western European cultures and other cultures, such as the United States, that have been strongly influenced by Western Europe view time as: a. linear. b. spiral. c. circular. d. triangular
When most U.S.
residents are asked to think about the future, they think in terms of:
17. In the United
States, several time models
exist although the model is dominant.
18. Usually, convenience goods such as boxed cereals and fast foods are considerably less valued in than in the United States. a. Canada b. Latin America c. Switzerland d. Great Britain
19. Southeast Asians tend to think of the
future in terms of:
rhythms are the daily rhythmic activity cycles, based on 24-hour
intervals that humans
accurate quantitative time measure
_______________ time use
investigates the meaning or significance of time use as well as how
feel about their time use.
is a mental estimation of the sequences that should take place, and the
approximate amount of time
required for each activity in the
sequence. a. Time-tagging b. Tempo
Describe the basics of and the
differences between the three models of time perceptions:
circular traditional, and procedural-traditional.
Topic 10 Questions
1.When Sigmund Freud was asked his
recipe for happiness, his short
2.The recent influx of _____________ into the labor force has caused a shift in the public's perception of the interchange between work and family. a.men b.teenagers c.women d.baby boomers
3. Post boomers or Gen-Xers are
________________ compared to baby
boomers regarding working long hours.
4. Several facts, figures, and
research findings were presented
in the textbook regarding the work and family interchange. Based on the
information presented, which of the following statements is false?
a.In the majority of families today, one parent works outside the home.
b.In the U.S., women on average earn about 76 cents to each dollar men earn.
c.Internationally, the earnings gap between men & women is on the average larger than in the United States.
d.More than 80 percent of all U.S. high school students hold jobs before their high school graduation.
5.Commuter marriages have become:
a. more common since large numbers of women entered the labor force.
b. less common because people are staying together more.
c. stable - stayed about the same.
d. less frequent because nearly all companies transfer couples together.
6.As one way to manage work and
family demands, more parents are
choosing to have children ____________ the work/family life cycle.
7.Voydanoff has identified several job demands that are related to work/family conflict. Which of the following was not on her list of demands? a.Role ambiguity b.Role conflict c.Intellectual or physical effort d.Methodical, expected change
8. Most women in the labor force
work primarily because:
9. Several studies indicate that performing the multiple roles of worker, spouse, and parent has a ___________ effect on women's physical & mental health. a.negative b.slight c. positive d. insignificant
10. The textbook suggests that
individuals and families can reduce
work and family conflict by:
11. In _______________ each person makes concessions, giving in a little in order to gain a valued settlement or outcome (e.g., harmony, an intact, functioning family). a.assimilation b.compromise c.socialization d.valuation
12. Due to changes in the U.S. economy, increasing numbers of ____________ in the steel, automotive, rubber, textile, apparel, and electronic industries have been vulnerable to extended unemployment, permanent job loss, or reemployment at lower wage and benefit levels. a.white collar jobs b.blue collar jobs c.office jobs d.service jobs
13. Therapists Ulrich and Dunne
observed that many of the ways people
react to work, employers, and co-workers are based on:
14.Many employers offer
__________________ to help workers and families
with emotional, financial, and legal difficulties and problems with
and drug abuse.
15. Examples of family-supportive
workplace policies include all
but which of the following:
16. In the United States in 1993,
President Bill Clinton signed
____________, which allows workers at companies with more than 50
to take up to 12 workweeks of unpaid leave to care for newborns and
adopted children or to care for ill family members.
17. __________ is effort expended to
produce or accomplish something
or an activity that is rewarded, usually with pay.
18. In 1938, President Franklin D.
Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor
Standards Act, which established a _________________ workweek.
19. ________________ refers to the inability to stop thinking about wQrk and doing work and the feeling that work is always the most pleasurable part of life. a.Workaholism b.Procrastination c.Proactivating d.Obsessing
20. ___________________ states that
a job expands to fill the time
available to accomplish tasks.
21. ____________ also known as the
80-20 rule, states that 20 percent
of the time expended usually produces 80 percent of the results while
percent of the time expended produces only 20 percent of the results.
22. According to the textbook,
workforce trends include all but
which of the following?
23. A survey conducted by the Gallup
Organization revealed that
people aged volunteer the most.
25. What will the future workplace
look like and how will it function?
How will it differ from the typical office spaces in the past?