7400.362 - Family Life Management
School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.

Study Questions for Exam 2 - Your first exam will be over the study questions below. Exam questions will be taken from this list.

Topic 5 Questions
1.________________ are conclusions or judgments about some issue or matter
    a. Decisions  b. Criteria c. Influences  d. Problems

2. __________________ is the process of making a choice between two or more alternatives.
    a.Bargaining b.Decision making  c. Problem solving d. Goal setting

3.Good decisions meet several criteria, including all but which of the following?
    a. quality b. acceptance c. flexibility d. risk

4. ________________guide decisions.
    a.Values  b.Resources  c. Worries d.Concerns

5. The desire to _________________ positive outcomes and to minimize mistakes motivates individuals to make the best decisions that they can.             a.maximize b.exploit c.implement  d.accelerate

6. In the acronym DECIDE, the first 0 stands for:
    a.define the decision     b.disseminate information     c.declare the problem   d.develop an action plan

7. In consumer decision making, the step called ____________ refers to The beliefs about the anticipated performance of a product or a service.     a. reactive    b. maintaining the status quo     c. implementation   d. satisficing.

8. After the decision process has been completed, the decision maker looks back to judge how successful the decision was. In consumer decision making, this step is called:     a. prepurchase expectations.  b. alternative sorting     c. postpurchase dissonance.  d. prioritizing.

9. In the _______________ model of decision making, each decision builds on the previous one, forming a sequence of decisions, such as the steps involved in preparing a meal.     a. Central-satellite b. Foa & Foa c. Elbing d. Chain

10. In the __________ model of decision making, a major decision is surrounded by decisions that are offshoots of the central decision.
    a. Central-satellite b. Foa&Foa c. Elbing d. Chain

11. One of the most important decision rules is the necessity to optimize or the usefulness of decisions.
    a. utility  b intuition  c. risk  d. assets

12. In the diagram of the decision tree, what lies at its base (the root of all decisions)?
    a. alternatives b. resources c. goals d. values

13. The people who influence an individual or provide guidance or advice are members of that person's
    a. family  b. reference groups c. household d. community

14. In a study of college students' smoking behavior, in more recent years students said the main reasons they smoked were:
    a. peer smoking and stress.                                             b. that they had parents and grandparents who smoked.
    c. that they had older brothers and sisters who smoked.  d. social and academic pressures.

15. Indecisiveness can be a major problem. The textbook listed some possible causes of indecisiveness. Which of the following was not on this list?     a.fear of the unknown     b.fear of making a wrong decision or mistake    c.boredom   d.lack of "good judgment"

16. The _____________ refers to when people are promoted beyond their level of competence.
    a.Peter Principle      b.Abernathy Principle     c.Delaney Principle     d.Samuelson Principle

18. According to a Table and discussion in the book regarding "who does what in the home men are more likely than women to do all but which of the following?    a.yard work      b.make minor repairs        c.pay bills      d.keep the car in good condition

19. The _________Model demonstrates that decisions are influenced by many factors and considerations and illustrates how two individuals in a family make decisions given their reference groups, alternatives, and environmental constraints.
    a.West      b.Elbing     c.Christiansen     d.Falhouse

20. According to a classic study by Blood and Wolfe, the partner who commands the greater amount of material resources will achieve _______________ in spousal decision making.     a.greater power     b.equality     c. emotional bonding     d.lesser power

21. According to the textbook, which of the following statements is false?

a. Family decision making on purchases can involve conflict.
b. Children have a significant influence on their parents' buying habits.
c. In management, decision making and problem solving mean the same thing;  they are interchangeable.
d. Looking within oneself for information about decisions is called an  internal search.

22. A person weighing uncertainty and risk is judging the ____________, or likelihood, of a good or bad outcome.
    a. probability       b.perception     c.psychological extent      d. uncertainty

23. An _________________ involves gathering information from family, friends, other people, and the media.
    a. internal search      b. efficiency search     c. exaggerated search     d. external search

Essay Questions
24. Diagram the Central-Satellite and the Chain Models of decision making. Put in an actual example of a decision situation in each.

25. What is the Peter Principle? In employment situations, how can it be avoided? Describe a situation in which you have observed the Peter Principle in action.

sTopic 6 Questions

1.Planning needs change over the life cycle. For example, the oldest members of ___________ turned 50 in 1996, so a large segment of the U.S. population is seriously planning for retirement.
    a. Generation X      b. the baby boom generation     c. the Backstreet Boys     d. Generation Y

2. A ________ is a detailed schema, program, strategy, or method worked out before-hand for the accomplishment of a desired end state.
    a.plan      b.process     c. technique     d.resource

3. _____________ is a thinking and information-gathering process involving a series of decisions.
    a.Planning      b.Acting     c.Sequencing     d.Brainstorming

4. The first step in the planning process model diagrammed in the textbook is:
    a.carrying out a plan.      b. gathering and analyzing information.     c.awareness.   d. evaluation.

5.When short-term concerns create priorities and deadlines that absorb managerial attention and energy at the expense of long range concerns, this phenomenon is known as:
    a.McGregor's Principle.   b.Gresham's Law of Planning.     c.Dorsey's Law of Time Management. d.Lakein's Law.

6. After purchasing a camera, an __________________ person might be more inclined to ask for help from the camera store owner or friends.         a.introverted      b.extroverted     c.experienced     d.irritating

7. Which of the following is not one of the main aspects of motivation?
    a. The goal or objective must be attractive and desired.
    b. The goal or objective seeker must be persistent.
    c. The seeker becomes re-energized if she or he does not reach the goal or objective.
    d. Failure to reach a goal leads to discontent.

8. According to Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs, a person attempts to satisfy a more basic need before directing behavior to higher needs. He proposed that the typical adult satisfies which of the following needs first?
    a. physiological     b. safety and security     c.love     d.esteem

9. __________ refers to a person's staying power; it is the personality trait of not giving up when faced with adversity.
    a. Autism      b. Persistence     c. Pessimism     d. Flexibility

10. ________________ are another important part of the planning process. They are defined as quantitative and/or qualitative criteria that reconcile resources with demands and serve as measures of values and goals.
    a. Attitudes     b. Mediation principles    c. Standards     d. Total quality management principles

11. __________________ refers to the specification of sets of time-bounded projected activities which are sufficient for the achievement of a desired goal.     a.Substantiating     b.Scheduling     c.Strategies     d.Clarifying

12. ______________ occurs when two or more activities take place at the same time.
    a.Independent activities      b.Dovetailing       c.Overlapping      d.Interdependent

13. ____________ activities involve a combination of activities that require intermittent and/or concurrent attention.
    a. Overlapping      b.Dovetailed     c.Independent     d.Registered

14. Which of the following is not one of three types of plans described in the text?
    a.directional     b.contingency     c.strategic      d.hierarchical

15. _______________ are backup or secondary plans to be used in case the first plan does not work out.
    a.Unilateral     b.Directional     c.Multilateral      d.Contingency

16. Which of the following is an example of proactive language?
    a. There's nothing I can do.      b. That's just the way I am.     c. I choose.     d. I can't.

17. Which of the following is an example of reactive language?
    a.They make me so mad.     b.I will.     c.I prefer.     d.Let's look at our options.

18. __________ people are often overly affected by outside forces, such as changes in the weather or the bad attitudes of their co-workers.     a. Proactive     b. Reactive     c. Obsessive     d. Compulsive

19. Possible blocks to successful implementation include all but which of the following?
    a. discouragement      b. costs and other restrictions    c. competition   d. too much motivation

20. ______________ is an activity in which individuals or families "read the world" by looking for signals or clues.
    a. Veiling      b. Controlling     c. Scanning     d. Procrastinating

21. _______________ is a planning technique used by advertisers, movie screenwriters, and television scriptwriters to show the sequence of the main scenes in a commercial, movie, or lV show. The same technique can be used by individual and family resource managers.
    a. Storyboarding     b. Evaluating     c. Scanning     d. Plotting

Essay Questions
22. How does stress affect planning? Include a discussion of Greshams Law of Planning in your answer.

23. What is the difference between proactive and reactive styles? Give examples of reactive and proactive language and approaches to planning.

24. Describe the roles of implementing and evaluating in the planning process. Define each and explain their function.

25. Describe the storyboarding technique. Who normally uses it? How can individuals and families use this technique?

Topic 7 Questions

1.The average person spends approximately ___________ percent of his or her waking hours in some form of communication -- writing, reading, speaking and listening.         a 10     b. 25     c. 70     d. 95

2.Effective communicators have a number of characteristics, including all but which of the following?
    a. sensitivity to others.                b. a tendency to tell and demand
c. openness to differing opinions     d. the ability to pass along information, giving advanced notice of impending changes and plans.

3. ______________ is the process of putting thought into symbolic form.
    a.Sourcing      b.Encoding     c.Decoding     d.Sending

4. The receiver of a message is the or audience.
    a.communicator     b.sender     c. destination      d.channeler

5. The advertisement by General Foods that says: "Turn a stormy night into a quiet evening with the after-dinner-mint taste of chocolaty Irish Mocha Mint" appeals to the listeners:         a.senses.      b.intellect.     c.emotions.     d.personality.

6. In ______________ the listener evaluates or challenges what is heard.
    a.empathy       b.critical listening     c.reflective listening     d.pleasurable listening

7.An engagement ring is an example of     a.a visible symbol.     b.an abstract symbol.    c.a critical message.  d.a verbal symbol.

8. ______________ is the distance between speakers.     a. Artifacts b. Proxemics c. Calisthenics d. Kinesics

9. Radio, television, magazines, newspapers, and signs are _____________ of mass communication.
        a. indirect channels  b. social channels     c. advocate channels  d. expert channels

10. Which of the following is not an example of external noise? a. an airplane overhead     b. a howling wind     c. lightning   d. daydreaming

11. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. The setting is where management messages are communicated.
b Message content refers to the strategies or information that may be used to communicate an idea or policy to receivers.
c. The channel is the medium or route through which the message travels from sender to receiver.
d. E-mail usage has declined over the last five years.

12. Negotiations to remedy communication conflict are known as:
a. conflict harmonizing.  b. conflict resolution.     c. conflict channeling.  d. conflict therapy.

13. Adding a second child to a two-parent family results in ___________ potential communication interactions.
     a.4         b.6         c.8         d.11

14. Researchers have identified several common destructive messages and tactics that characterize ineffective communication within families. Which of the following is an example of a destructive message or tactic?
    a. cooperating     b. ordering     c. praising     d. supporting

15. _____________ conflicts focus on the issue or the problem rather than on the other person's deficits.
    a. Destructive     b. Constructive     c. Complex     d. Personal

16. According to Deborah Tannen, author of You Just Don't Understand, which of the following is true?
    a.Women talk far more than men, especially in public.
    b.Women speak more at meetings, in the classroom, and in mixed groups at work
    c.Men and women differ in the way they express their troubles and the way they seek out information.
    d.Women complain about men's refusal to take action to solve the problems they complain about.

17. According to psychiatrist Aaron Beck, which of the following statements is true?
    a.Wives tend to believe that their marriage is working as long as they and their husbands are talking about it.
    b.Men think their marriages are working if they talk about it a lot with their wives.
    c.Husbands and wives think it is equally important to discuss their marital concerns frequently.
    d.Neither husbands nor wives feel it is necessary to discuss their marriage with each other,

18. According to Deborah Tannen, author of You Just Don't Understand, young girls are more likely than boys to say ___________ in their conversations.
    a. "give it to me"  b. "let's" and 'We"     c. "you're a dope"  d. "get up"

19. There are four distance zones common in the United States. Business tends to be conducted:
    a. in the intimate zone of less than 18 inches.         b. in the social zone of 4 to 7 feet.
    c. in the public zone of 12 to 25 feet.                    d. in the professional zone of 26 to 40 feet.

20. Groups vary in size, but research indicates that effective group size (in terms of communication) ranges from 3 to 13, with the ideal being _______             a.3     b.5     c.10     d.12

21. In _________ all group members suggest ideas -- no matter how seemingly ridiculous or strange.
    a.brainstorming     b.the alpha method       c.cohesion     d.the Delphi method

22. As consumers, individuals are constantly bombarded with information. Some of this information is ____________, such as through billboards, airplane messages, and loudspeakers at K-marts.
        a. actively acquired      b.passively acquired         c.sought after   d.progressively acquired

23. Faith Popcorn, a predictor of trends, noted that ______________ (the desire to remain at home as a place of coziness, control, peace, insulation, and protection) is already being facilitated by technology such as videocassette recorders and microwave ovens.
    a. cocooning     b. boomeranging     c. harpooning     d. hibernating

Essay Questions
24. Why is communication important in management? What part does it play in the management process?

25. Do you agree or disagree with Theodore Levitt's statement that the more information you are exposed to, the less meaning it seems to have? Explain.

Topic 8 Questions
1. One hundred years ago. 1.5 billion people inhabited the earth, and most of the largest cities were located in:
    a. Africa. b. South America. c. Western Europe. d. Asia.

2. According to the textbook, the world population is a bout 6 billion, and has become the center of the greatest concentrations of people.
    a.Africa     b. South America   c.Western Europe  d.Asia

3. According to the textbook, human resources can be divided into three main categories. Which of the following is not one of the categories?     a. cognitive  b. financial   c. affective    d. psychomotor

4. The first U.S. census was taken in:
    a.1790 when George Washington was president.         b.1850 when Millard Fillmore was president.
    c.1862 when Abraham Lincoln was president.             d.1933 when F. D. Roosevelt was president.

5. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a.The national census is taken every 10 years by the Bureau of the Census.
b.India is the most populous country in the world.
c.Certain countries are losing population, such as Russia, Italy, and Germany.
d. The census attempts to count every person living in the United States and to collect vital information about family size and community and housing conditions.

6. ______________ is the study of characteristics of human populations.
    a. Demography b. Geography c. Paleontology d. Gerontology

7. Population figures are affected by three main factors. Which of the following was not listed in the textbook?
    a.births b. deaths c.immigration d.occupation

8. The yearly number of births per 1000 women of childbearing age is called:   a.mortality  b.fertility rate  c.immigration d.demographic rate

9. In U.S. history, there have been periods of fast and slow population growth. Which of the following was a time of slow growth?
        a. 1880-1900      b.1900-1 920     c.The Great Depression of the1930s

10. The nation with the lowest fertility rate is:     a. Nigeria     b. Pakistan     c. Ireland     d. Spain

11. Which of the following is true about life expectancy?
    a. Between 1970 and 1980, the average American's life expectancy went up 15 yrs.
    b. Life expectancy is higher for men than for women.
    c. On average, women live longer than men.
    d. Life expectancy is expected to go down in the 21 st century.

12. ____________ are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
    a.Minority groups      b.Anglo-Americans    c.Legal Immigrants  d.Canadian-Americans

13. According to the textbook, which of the following statements is false about the U.S. population?

a. There are 505 federally recognized Indian tribes.
b. Hispanics are the largest minority group.
c. Asian Americans constitute 3 to 4 percent of the nation's population
d. The average African-American family has 3.5 members.

14. The median age of first marriages in the U.S. is:
    a.rising.   b.staying the same.     c.lowering slightly. d.lowering significantly.

15. The number of households is increasing in the United States and the number of persons per household is:
        a.increasing also.     b.staying the same.    c.decreasing.      d.barely changing.

16. According to a survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, the typical householder moves every ___________
    a.one or two years     b.five or six years     c.ten years   d. fifteen or twenty years

17.Certain states have more mobile populations than others. has the fewest number of natives (residents born in the state).
    a. Nevada     b.Pennsylvania     c. California     d.Texas

18. Based on information in the textbook, which of the following statements is false?

a.Dual-earner families usually report that they are happy and satisfied.
b.Managing change is inherently messy.
c.The terms dual income and dual career mean the same thing.
d.A Yale University study found that many parents prefer home-based care for infants and toddlers and child-care centers for older children.

19. Nationally, women are:         a.having children at a younger age.                        b. delaying childbirth.
                                                  c.having more children than twenty years ago.     d.spacing their children five years apart.
 
20. United States children spend ________ days in school than children in Japan.
    a.fewer     b.about the same number of       c.slightly more     d.significantly more

21. According to the textbook, which of the following statements is false?

a. Demographers have found that men are more likely than women to return to their parents' home after the age of 25.
b. Many middle-aged Americans, aged 45 to 64 (called the "sandwich generation), are caring for both their children and their elderly parents.
c. There have been homeless people in the United States since the end of the Vietnam War.
d. Often the word disability is used as a synonym for handicap, but the terms are different.

22. ________________ are moneys or services given for which the recipient does not directly pay.
    a. Underclass payments     b.Poverty payments     c. Blended payments     d.Transfer payments

23. Because of the lack of adequate housing and other daily living problems, over time many very low-income families become pessimistic about the future and feel that they have little control over their lives.   This feeling is termed __________
    a. spiraling      b. fatalism     c. depression     d. actuation

Essay Questions
24. Discuss population growth worldwide, changes in family structure, mobility, the baby boom tidal wave, and the "aging of America"

25. Discuss the special management problems or concerns of elderly people, the homeless, and individuals with disabilities. What do they need?

Topic 9 Questions

1. A
central management concept is ____________________ which is concern over how time spent in one activity takes away from time spent in another activity.    a. time aspiration                       b. time displacement     c. time delineation         d.time exploitation

2. Time is a ________________.      a. resource  b. value                        c. goal              d. decision

3. _________________ is the time that an individual cannot control totally by himself or herself.
    a. Discretionary time                 b. Nondiscretionary time           c. Real time      d. Psychic time

4. According to the textbook, child expert and author David Elkind points out that:

a. Children today do not have enough to do   
b. Children today have too much free time
c. Children today are overcommitted and are growing up too fast and too soon.
d. Children today spend too much time in unorganized activities.


5. In Alan Lakein’s ABC Method of Time Control, the A stands for:

    a. low-value activities.               b. medium-value activities.c. the most important activities.             d. none of the above.

6. In Alan Lakein’s book How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life, he emphasizes that daily time use should be directly related to:    a. resources.                 b. values.          c. attitudes.       d. goals

7. ___________refers to the process where sensory stimulation is translated into organized
experience.       a. Memory                       b. Perception    c. Intelligence                d. Wisdom

8. Several factors influence a person’s estimation of time. Which of the following was not discussed
in the textbook?    a. type of activity (and interest in)                      b. level of motivation (absorption in task)
                            c. personality traits                                            d. educational factor

9. Age appears to be a factor in time perception. According to the text, which is is false?

a. Elderly people tend to find time longer than younger people.
b. Children’s time estimates become more accurate after the age of seven or eight.
c. Young children do not understand time the way an adult does.
d. Middle-aged people are the most accurate in their time perceptions.


10. The early study of factory efficiency was closely associated with the work of __________ who is widely considered to be the father of time and motion studies.       a. James Webster         b. Frederick Taylor       c. Lawrence Houghton  d. Harold Neibauer

11.____________ are selected groups of people who are questioned by a discussion leader or moderator about what they think about different topics, for example products and services.  a. Focus groups      b. Access groups    c. Booster groups    d.Total quality circles

 12.       The amount of Social Security retired people receive is based on:
    a. how hard they worked.    b. the number of years they were employed  c. how much they earned.      d. both b and c are correct.

13. A widely held concept in______________is that time perceptions are strongly influenced byculture.  a. biology                    b. anthropology                        c. psychology               d. geology

14. According to E. T. Hall, the author of The Silent Language, there are three anthropological models of time. Which of the following is not one of them?         a. linear-separable        b. circular-traditional     c. spatial-sequential       d. procedural-traditional

 15. Most Western European cultures and other cultures, such as the United States, that have been strongly influenced by Western Europe view time as:         a. linear.  b. spiral.  c. circular.  d. triangular

16. When most U.S. residents are asked to think about the future, they think in terms of:
        a. next week.                b. next month.               c. next year.      d. 5 to 25 years.

 17.  In the United States, several time models exist although the model is dominant.
            a. circular-traditional       b. procedural-traditional          c. linear-separable        d. spatial-separable

 18.  Usually, convenience goods such as boxed cereals and fast foods are considerably less valued in                                           than in the United States.    a. Canada         b. Latin America           c. Switzerland               d. Great Britain

19.  Southeast Asians tend to think of the future in terms of:
        a. 1 to 5 years.             b. a decade.     c. a generation. d. hundreds or thousands of years.

20.________________ rhythms are the daily rhythmic activity cycles, based on 24-hour intervals that humans experience.
    a. Circadian    b. Cybernetic    c. Dynamic       d. Aerobic

21. The most accurate quantitative time measure is:       
    a. self-report or diary method.     b. recall method.
    c. observation method.               d. a combination of all the above methods to allow for cross-checks.

22. _______________ time use investigates the meaning or significance of time use as well as how individuals feel about their time use. 
        a. Quantitative  b. Qualitative  c. Episodic           d. Calendar

23. _____________ is a mental estimation of the sequences that should take place, and the approximate amount of time required for each activity in the sequence.        a. Time-tagging    b. Tempo         c. Routine         d. Scheduling

Essay Questions

24.  Describe the basics of and the differences between the three models of time perceptions: linear-separable, circular traditional, and procedural-traditional.
 
25.       Guy Claxton, author of Hare Brain Tortoise Mind says that Western hurry-up methods have their drawbacks because slow ways of knowing exist and can be useful. What are some of the drawbacks involved in always being in a hurry? What are examples of slow ways of knowing

Topic 10 Questions

1.When Sigmund Freud was asked his recipe for happiness, his short answer was:
        a. rise early, work hard.     b. work and love.    c. caring and sharing.     d. understand thyself.

2.The recent influx of _____________ into the labor force has caused a shift in the public's perception of the interchange between work and family.     a.men       b.teenagers      c.women     d.baby boomers

3. Post boomers or Gen-Xers are ________________ compared to baby boomers regarding working long hours.
    a. more diverse       b. more dedicated     c.more strict     d.about the same

4. Several facts, figures, and research findings were presented in the textbook regarding the work and family interchange. Based on the information presented, which of the following statements is false?

a.In the majority of families today, one parent works outside the home.
b.In the U.S., women on average earn about 76 cents to each dollar men earn.
c.Internationally, the earnings gap between men & women is on the average larger than in the United States.
d.More than 80 percent of all U.S. high school students hold jobs before their high school graduation.

5.Commuter marriages have become:

a. more common since large numbers of women entered the labor force.
b. less common because people are staying together more.
c. stable - stayed about the same.
d. less frequent because nearly all companies transfer couples together.

6.As one way to manage work and family demands, more parents are choosing to have children ____________ the work/family life cycle.
    a.earlier in     b.later in      c.midway in      d.at the end of

7.Voydanoff has identified several job demands that are related to work/family conflict. Which of the following was not on her list of demands?        a.Role ambiguity     b.Role conflict     c.Intellectual or physical effort  d.Methodical, expected change

8. Most women in the labor force work primarily because:
    a.they want to get out of the house.                 b.they seek praise and rewards.
    c.they and/or their family needs the money.      d.they want to use their education and skills.

9. Several studies indicate that performing the multiple roles of worker, spouse, and parent has a ___________ effect on women's physical & mental health.      a.negative     b.slight     c. positive     d. insignificant

10. The textbook suggests that individuals and families can reduce work and family conflict by: 
a. managing the conflict so that different ideas, opinions,  and approaches are brought out for discussion and handling.
b. resolving conflict when it becomes too disruptive.
c. working longer hours.
d. both a and b are correct.

11. In _______________ each person makes concessions, giving in a little in order to gain a valued settlement or outcome (e.g., harmony, an intact, functioning family).             a.assimilation     b.compromise     c.socialization     d.valuation

12. Due to changes in the U.S. economy, increasing numbers of ____________ in the steel, automotive, rubber, textile, apparel, and electronic industries have been vulnerable to extended unemployment, permanent job loss, or reemployment at lower wage and benefit levels.             a.white collar jobs      b.blue collar jobs    c.office jobs   d.service jobs

13. Therapists Ulrich and Dunne observed that many of the ways people react to work, employers, and co-workers are based on:
    a.school experiences, especially relationships with teachers.                         b.first work experiences.
    c.early childhood experiences, especially relationships with parents/siblings. d.language development.

14.Many employers offer __________________ to help workers and families with emotional, financial, and legal difficulties and problems with alcoholism and drug abuse.
     a.Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)  b.Cognitive Therapy Programs     c.Money outpatient     d.referrals

15. Examples of family-supportive workplace policies include all but which of the following:
        a.Access to outside services                     b.On-site seminars on financial planning
        c.Wellness programs and fitness centers   d.Consistent programs across all employees

16. In the United States in 1993, President Bill Clinton signed ____________, which allows workers at companies with more than 50 employees to take up to 12 workweeks of unpaid leave to care for newborns and newly adopted children or to care for ill family members.
    a.NAFTA       b.the Family and Medical Leave Act      c.the Haistead Act     d.the Kennedy-Nordstrom Leave Act

17. __________ is effort expended to produce or accomplish something or an activity that is rewarded, usually with pay.
        a. Work     b.Leisure      c.Volunteer work   d.Management

18. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act, which established a _________________ workweek.
        a.35-hour     b.39-hour     c.44-hour     d.48 hour

19. ________________ refers to the inability to stop thinking about wQrk and doing work and the feeling that work is always the most pleasurable part of life.     a.Workaholism     b.Procrastination    c.Proactivating     d.Obsessing

20. ___________________ states that a job expands to fill the time available to accomplish tasks.
        a.Pareto's principle     b.Northootes theory     c.Parkinson's law      d.The Peter Principle

21. ____________ also known as the 80-20 rule, states that 20 percent of the time expended usually produces 80 percent of the results while 80 percent of the time expended produces only 20 percent of the results.
    a.Pareto's principle     b.Northcotes theory     c.Parkinson's law      d. The Peter Principle

22. According to the textbook, workforce trends include all but which of the following?
    a.Fewer working hours     b.More mobility     c. More home-based work   
    d. More lost weekends     e. Increased demand for service workers

23. A survey conducted by the Gallup Organization revealed that people aged volunteer the most.
    a.10-14     b.20-25     c.45-54     d.65-70

Essay Questions
24. Do you agree or disagree with Sigmund Freud that the recipe for happiness is 'Work and love?" Should anything else be added? If work and love lead to happiness, why do people experience so many work and family conflicts?

25. What will the future workplace look like and how will it function? How will it differ from the typical office spaces in the past?