7400.362 - Family Life Management
School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.

Study Questions for Exam 1 - Your first exam will be over the study questions below. Exam questions will be taken from this list.

Topic 1 Questions
1.   Management is the process of:
a. controlling others' lives.        b.   using resources to achieve goals. c.   changing one's perspective.     d. acting in a repetitive pattern.

2.   According to Dennis Bristow and John Mowen, which of the following is not one of the four types of needs
    a. physical                 b. social    c. ego      d. information

3.   _________ are end results that require action
    a. Goals          b. Attitudes     c. Values         d. Problems

4.   Information that returns to the system is known as
a. genomes       b. feedback c. listening     d. innovation

5, Management are measuring devices, techniques, or instruments that are used to arrive at decisions and plans of action.
    a. plans           b. machines     c. tricks          d. tools

6.    In order to be successful, a plan needs to be all of the following except:
    a. realistic.        b.   clear.        c.   inflexible.     d.   well-thought-out and well-executed.

7.   Which of the following is not a main factor influencing management styles?
    a. history         b. biology     c. culture         d. politics

8.   According to psychologist _______________ before higher-order needs are undertaken physiological needs must be met .
    a. Abraham Maslow    b. Peter Drucker    c. J.   Saluter      d. Eloise Baker

9.    Currently, _______percent of U.S.   households have corded telephones.
    a. 25         b. 50    c. 60         d. 96

10.   Over _________ percent of U.S.   households have personal computers.
    a. 10         b. 20     c. 30         d. 40

11.   In 1879, President Rutherford B. Hayes had the first telephone installed in the White House, but it was rarely used because:

    a. he didn't know how to use it.                                        b. it kept breaking and no one could fix it.
    c. hardly anyone else in Washington had a telephone        d. hand-written letters were considered a more correct form of communication.

12.   According to the textbook, which of the following inventions were people at first hesitant to use because of safety concerns?
    a. televisions      b. furnaces   c. air conditioners     d. microwave ovens

13.   According to the textbook, four disciplines are particularly applicable to management.   Which of the following was not on the list?
    a. humanities       b. psychology c. sociology        d. economics

14.The characteristic way or pattern in which an individual conducts her or his life is called a:
        a. lifestyle         b. socius         c. psyche            d. selfhood

15.  In 1900, the average life expectancy was
    a. 32                 b. 47     c. 58                 d. 65

 16.    Today, the average life expectancy is
    a. 50                 b. 60     c. 65                 d. 75

17.   According to the Census Bureau, the median age at first marriage in 2000 was 25 for females, and for males.
    a. 19             b. 23     c. 27             d. 35

18.   Census data reveal that large numbers of elderly singles live in the Sun Belt states and in:
    a. the rural Midwest. b.  New England.  c. the Northwest.  d.  the urban West.

19.   Which of the following is a correct statement according to the U.S. Census Bureau?
    a. All households are families.
    b. Since 1980, the percentage of households that are families has risen.
    c. Since 1980, the percentage of people living alone has risen.
    d. The average number of people per household rose substantially between 1980 and 1990.

20.   According to an article in USA Today, families headed by married couples make up:
    a. 10% of U.S.  households.                        b. about one fourth of U.S. households.
    c.  just over half of U.S.   households.          d.   90% of U.S.  households.

21.A current demographic trend is that:
    a. individuals are increasingly putting off marriage and childbirth until later years.
    b.  the number of families is declining.
    c.  families are the same as they were 20 years ago
    d. grandparents matter less than they used to.

Essay Questions
22.   Describe the process of management.   What are the steps involved? How does it start?  How does it end? Diagram, if necessary.

23.   The study of management is motivated by curiosity and the desire to understand human behavior.  Keeping this in mind, answer the following three questions: What is management? Why manage? Who manages?

23.   Resource management has an interdisciplinary foundation.   Name at least three of the disciplines that had an impact on the study of management and describe their contribution.

25, According to the Census Bureau, how have families and households changed in recent years? In your answer, discuss the number of single adults and changes in family and household size.

Topic 2 Questions
 1.     Management emerged as a formal subject of study in the United States in the:
    a. 17th century   b. 18th century    c. 19th century d. 20h century

2.     The first textbook with household management in the title, First Principles of Household Management and Cookery, was written by:
    a. Lillian Gilbreth. b. Maria Parloa.  c. Christine Frederick. d. Sarah Cowan.

3. Management was part of the discipline of home economics, which was founded at the held between 1899-1908.
    a. Lake Placid Conferences in New York
    b. Packard Conferences in Michigan
    c. Smith-Lever Conferences in Massachusetts
    d. Potomac Conferences in Washington, DC

4. Two of the earliest colleges with residence courses were Stout Institute in Wisconsin and ________.
    a. the University of Illinois b. the University of Georgia
    c. Auburn University          d. Ohio State University

5.    ________ known as the father of management and famous for his time and motion studies, proposed scientific management principles designed to maximize production efficiency.   He is particularly known for his factory line efficiency studies.
    a. Robert Shellenbarger      b. Frederick Taylor        c. Charles Lepis             d. John Beatty

 6.     The concept of improving work methods in the home is known as
    a. satisficing.           b. optimization.        c. work simplification.   d. task reorientation.

7   Although Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879, only___ % U.S.  homes had electricity by 1907.
    a. 8    b. 20    c. 35    d. 50

8.   One difference between household production and consumption in the 1890s compared to the 1950s was that:
    a. brand names became less important by the 1950s.
    b. there were more servants per household in the 1950s.
    c. home delivery of goods became less common in the 1950s.
    d. household work became more difficult in the 1950s.

9.     According to Carole Vickers, family/home management history can be divided into four principal eras.
  Era one (1900-1930s) focused on:
    a. health, sanitation, hygiene, and household production.
    b. household equipment and task management.
    c. values and decision making.
    d. the systems approach to total quality management.

10. In 1925, Congress passed the _________ which provided funds for economic and sociological investigations to develop and improve rural home life.
    a. Goebel Act    b. Pumell Act    c. McCullough Act    d. Warren Act

11.    One of the most studied topics in management is:
    a. disaster control.         b. government-business relationships        c. caloric intake.           d. time use.

12.   ________  is an organized system of ideas or beliefs that can be measured; it is a system of assumptions or principles.
    a. Knowledge    b. Theory     c. Wisdom     d. Philosophy

13.     The place or point where independent systems or diverse groups interact is called the
    a. interface    b. boundary    c. subsystem    d. locus

 14.   __________ systems are adaptive to change and are relatively open.
    a. Morphostatic   b. Input   c. Morphogenic   d. Throughput or transformation

15.   ________  are events or goals that require action.
    a. Sequences     b. Resources     c. Strategies     d. Demands

16.    ____________ is information put into the system that indicates that the system is deviating from its normal course and that corrective measures may be necessary if the steady state is to be maintained.
    a. Positive feedback    b. Negative feedback        c. Equifinality         d. Multifinality

17   A tendency toward disorder or randomness is called:
    a. homeostasis.   b. cybernetics.    c. entropy.    d. multifinality.

18.     According to McCubbin and colleagues, families have the ability to recover quickly from a misfortune, trauma, or transitional event, an ability referred to as
    a. cognition. b. synergy.    c. buoyancy    d. clarity.

19.     According to Monica McGoldrick, the "family" comprises the emotional system of:
    a. at least three and increasingly four generations.        b. two generations.
    c. one generation.                                                       d. one person

20.   The average grocery store offers __________ different products
    a. 5,000        b. 10,000        c. more than 30,000    d. none of the above

21.    According to Paolucci, et al. the family ecosystem has three basic elements  Which of the following is not one of these elements?
    a. organisms    b. environments    c. family organization    d. situations

22.    The possibility of experiencing harm, suffering, danger, or loss is known as:
    a. risk.         b. locus of control.    c. morphogenesis.    d. morphostasis.

Essay Questions
23.     Compare and contrast typical homes and household tasks in 1900, 1950, and 2000

24.     The study of management has gone through many eras or stages.   Describe the four eras designated by Carole Vickers.

25.   "There is nothing so practical as a good theory  according to Kurt Lewin. Explain why theory is useful and describe the basics of systems theory and economic theorya.     In the twentieth century .some of the most important advances have been in the field of aviation.

Topic 3 Questions
1. Who was the first aviator to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe?
    a. Amelia Earhart        b. F. Scott Fitzgerald        c. Charles Lindbergh     d. James T.   Thompson

2.     A person's judgments are based on the value meanings derived from his or her feelings, known as the:
    a. affective domain. b. cognitive domain.    c. construct domain. d. instinctual domain.

3. ________    are concepts that may express values, serve as a means of evaluation, or demonstrate feeling in regard to some idea, person, object, event, situation, or relationship.   They are expressions of:
    a. likes and dislikes.  b. Attitudes Behaviors    c. Goal orientations    d. Preferences

4. Which of the following is not one of the ways values are classified?
    a. absolute and relative        b. intrinsic and extrinsic
    c. traditional and prophetic    d. instrumental and terminal

5.     Based on the findings from the VALS (Values and Lifestyles) research, consumers were divided into four major groups.   The largest group, making up about 67 percent of the population was designated the:
    a. need-driven consumers.    b. outer-directed consumers.    c. inner-directed consumers. d. spatial-driven consumers.

6.   In VALS 2, three primary self-orientations are designated.   In which of these are individuals guided in their choices by their beliefs and principles rather than by feelings, events, or desire for approval?
    a. principle-oriented    b. status-oriented    c. pattern-oriented      d. action-oriented

7.   Complete the following statement: A study conducted by Hilton Hotels Corporation found that 48 percent of the people living on the West Coast of the United States make time for their ideal weekend:
    a. compared with 38 percent of those on the East Coast.    b. compared with 72 percent of those on the East Coast.
    c. compared with 54 percent of Mid-Westerners.              d. compared with 10 percent of Southerners.

8.  ________- play a fundamental role in forming children's values
    a. Societies        b. Families, especially parents        c. Schools, especially other students    d. Communities

9.   The process by which children learn the rules of a society is called:
    a. fraternization    b. patronization    c. socialization     d. acculturation

10.   Along with the dominant social and cultural trends, there are also subdominant trends.
  For example, the value of (going back to basics) appears to run in cycles.
    a. traditionalism   b. spiritualism    c. acculturation    d. fraternization

11. Ajzen and Fishbein developed a theory of reasoned action that assumes that human beings are:
    a. irrational most of the time.
    b. usually quite rational and make systematic use of the information available to them.
    c. usually brand loyal.
    d. mostly emotion-driven.

12. ________   are repetitive, often unconscious patterns of behavior.
    a. Goals     b. Values    c. Attitudes    d. Habits

13. According to the textbook, goals vary in all but which of the following?
    a. intensity    b. complexity    c. mobility    d. timing

14. _______________ goals usually take more than one year to achieve.
    a. Short-term    b. Intermediate    c. Long-range    d. Terminal

15.  If a person's primary goal is to attain a college degree efficiently in four years, then his or her secondary goals would probably include all but which of the following?
    a. being accepted into a college     b. passing courses    c. working full time                 d. completing graduation requirements

  16   Ninety percent of the reported studies in psychology have found that goal setting:
    a. has negative or partially negative effects on task performance.    b. has positive or partially positive effects on task performance.
    c. has mostly negative effects on task performance.                       d. has little or no effect on task performance.

17   According to author Martin Seligman, ___________  is necessary for a good, successful life and for achieving goals.
    a. optimism     b. transcendence   c. wisdom        d. freedom

18.     Which of the following is not a suggested way to attain goals?
    a. set specific goals and prioritize them
    b. state goals clearly and positively
    c. forecast possible future events and the resources that will be needed to deal with them
    d. give up when crises happen

19.   In a classic study, David McClelland, a Harvard psychologist, stressed that individuals vary in their need for:  _________  achievement, which he called
    a. "n Ach.".            b. love and affection.            c. feedback.            d. adventure and thrill-seeking.

20. Studies of college students find that:
    a. women were about as goal oriented as men.
    b. women cared more about their future careers than men did.
    c. men were more likely to sacrifice financial success for a relationship
    d. physical fitness was more important to women than to men.

21. The two kinds of motivation covered in the textbook are:
    a. internal and external.    b. intrinsic and extrinsic.    c. maternal and paternal     d. Type A and Type B.

22.  Rewards are most effective if they are:
    a. general, given to many people.    b. given after good work performance.    c. valued by the giver.              d. inequitable.

Essay Questions
23. How are values different from attitudes? Give examples of each.

24. What is the difference between goals and habits? Define each and give examples.

25. A study of survivors of concentration camps found that those who had a purpose for living and well-defined goals were able to withstand greater deprivation, including starvation and torture, than those without goals.   Explain why this would happen.

Topic 4 Questions
 1. ____________   is the ability to recognize and use resources effectively.
    a. Resourcefulness b. Helpfulness  c. Intuitiveness d. Efficiency

2. ____________ resources are the skills, talents, and abilities that people possess.
    a. Material    b. Capital  c. Human   d. Cultural

3.     According to the textbook, one estimate states that although everyone has human capital and the potential for growth anddevelopment, only ____ percent of human potential is used.
    a. 1-2      b. 4-10     c. 25-30     d. 40-50

4.   According to the National Restaurant Association, the most likely meal to be eaten out is:
    a. breakfast. b. lunch. c. dinner . d. between meal snacks.

5.    Which of the following statements is incorrect?
    a. Resource stock is the sum of readily available resources an individual possesses.
    b. Scarcity means a shortage or an insufficient amount or supply.
    c. Intangible resources are real, touchable, or capable of being appraised.
    d. Human capital is the sum total of human resources, all the capabilities and traits that people use to achieve goals and other resources.

6.  According to Juliet Schor, author of The Overworked American:
    a. Americans report they have 40 hours of leisure a week.
    b. Americans now are working longer than they were forty years ago.
    c. U.S. manufacturing employees work less than their counterparts in West Germany and France.
    d. If present trends continue, by 2006 Americans will be spending less time at their jobs than they did in the 1920s

7.    The highest-valued alternative that must be sacrificed to satisfy a want or attain something is called:
    a. scarcity.     b. opportunity cost.     c. availability.     d. choice.

8.   Which of the following terms fits in both blanks? ____________exists as long as people cannot purchase everything at zero price. Theoretically, the richest person and the poorest person experience _____________.
    a. abundance     b. opportunity     c. availability     d. scarcity

9.   The highest valued alternative that must be sacrificed to satisfy a want or to attain something is called:
    a. human capital     b. availability     c. opportunity cost     d. choice

10.  According to the law of __________ as the price of a good or service rises, the quantity of that good or service falls.
    a. demand     b. welfare    c. government    d. marketing

11.  __________ resources are owned and/or controlled by an individual, family, or group.
    a. Public     b. Private     c. Community     d. Property

12.    In 1776, Adam Smith, in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, used the term ___________ to suggest that government should leave business alone.
    a. caveat emptor    b. laissez-faire     c. caveat vendor    d. ex libris

 13.   Which of the following is not a typical economic resource?
    a. household equipment   b. credit   c. money  d. debt

14. ________ percent of employees work in medium and larger U.S.  firms and businesses
    a. 10     b. 25     c. 50     d. 95

15.  Resources have certain characteristics or attributes.  Which of the following is not one of them?
    a. resources are interdependent         b. sometimes resources are exchangeable
    c. human resources are limited          d. sometimes resources can be stored

16. ______________ attributes refer to the knowledge aspects of resource use.
    a. Affective    b. Cognitive    c. Psychomotor    d. Sociocultural

17.    The Foa & Foa Resource Model demonstrates the _____________.
    a. interdependence of resources     b. limitation of resources.
    c. erratic nature of resources.     d. history of resource use.

18.     The Resource Model of Motivation (RMM) is founded upon the premise that in order to function properly, humans:
    a. engage in economic activities that involve the exchange of goods and money.
    b. engage in exchange activities to protect and enhance certain fundamental assets (resources).
    c. engage in affective exchanges.
    d. must think of others first.

19.  In the Resource Model of Motivation (RMM), ________ is in the center.
    a. stress     b. education    c. self-concept    d. time

20.  _______________    is the value, worth, applicability, productiveness, or usefulness of a  resource.
    a. Utility     b. Marketability     c. Capital     d. Credit

 21   E. F.  Schumacher, author of Small is Beautiful, says that ________ is the most vital of all resources.
    a. culture    b. beauty     c. education    d. honesty

22.   is the sum of all socially transmitted behavior patterns, beliefs, arts, expectations, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a group, community, or population.
    a. Culture     b. Technology    c. Folklore    d. Society

Essay Questions
23. What do members of cultural groups share? How is culture transmitted? What are norms

24.  During the past 20 years, families and households in most of the world have undergone vast changes.  List and explain some of these changes.   Why do you think fathers are spending more time with their children?

25.  Why has the United States been called a throw-away society? How does consumption in the United States compare with consumption in China.