7400.362 - Family Life
School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.
for Exam 1
- Your first exam will be over the study questions
below. Exam questions will be taken from this list.
1. Management is the process of:
a. controlling others' lives.
b. using resources to achieve goals. c. changing one's
perspective. d. acting in a repetitive pattern.
2. According to Dennis Bristow and John Mowen, which of the
following is not one of the four types of needs
b. social c. ego d.
3. _________ are end results that require action
Values d. Problems
4. Information that returns to the system is known as
a. genomes b. feedback c.
listening d. innovation
5, Management are measuring devices,
techniques, or instruments that are used to arrive at decisions and
plans of action.
tricks d. tools
6. In order to be successful, a plan needs to be all
of the following except:
inflexible. d. well-thought-out and
7. Which of the following is not a main factor influencing
culture d. politics
8. According to psychologist _______________ before
higher-order needs are undertaken physiological needs must be met .
a. Abraham Maslow b. Peter
Drucker c. J.
Saluter d. Eloise Baker
9. Currently, _______percent of U.S.
households have corded telephones.
60 d. 96
10. Over _________ percent of U.S. households
have personal computers.
30 d. 40
11. In 1879, President Rutherford B. Hayes had the first
telephone installed in the White House, but it was rarely used because:
a. he didn't know how to use it.
b. it kept
breaking and no one could fix it.
c. hardly anyone else in Washington had a
telephone d. hand-written letters
were considered a more correct form of communication.
12. According to the textbook, which of the following inventions
were people at first hesitant to use because of safety concerns?
a. televisions b.
furnaces c. air conditioners d.
13. According to the textbook, four disciplines are particularly
applicable to management. Which of the following was not on
a. humanities b.
psychology c. sociology d.
14.The characteristic way or pattern in which an individual conducts
her or his life is called a:
15. In 1900, the average life
b. 47 c.
16. Today, the average life expectancy is
b. 60 c.
17. According to the Census Bureau, the median age at first
marriage in 2000 was 25 for females, and for males.
b. 23 c.
18. Census data reveal that large numbers of elderly
singles live in the Sun Belt states and in:
a. the rural Midwest. b. New England. c.
the Northwest. d. the urban West.
19. Which of the following is a correct statement according
to the U.S. Census Bureau?
a. All households are families.
b. Since 1980, the percentage of households that are
families has risen.
c. Since 1980, the percentage of people living alone
d. The average number of people per household rose
substantially between 1980 and 1990.
20. According to an article in USA Today, families headed
by married couples make up:
a. 10% of U.S. households.
b. about one fourth of U.S.
c. just over half of U.S.
90% of U.S. households.
21.A current demographic trend is that:
a. individuals are increasingly putting off marriage
and childbirth until later years.
b. the number of families is declining.
c. families are the same as they were 20 years
d. grandparents matter less than they used to.
22. Describe the process of management. What are the
steps involved? How does it start? How does it end? Diagram, if
23. The study of management
is motivated by curiosity and the desire to understand human
behavior. Keeping this in mind, answer the following three
questions: What is management? Why manage? Who manages?
23. Resource management has
an interdisciplinary foundation. Name at least three of the
disciplines that had an impact on the study of management and describe
25, According to the Census Bureau,
how have families and households changed in recent years? In your
answer, discuss the number of single adults and changes in family and
Topic 2 Questions
1. Management emerged as a formal subject of
study in the United States in the:
a. 17th century b. 18th
century c. 19th century d. 20h century
2. The first textbook with household management
in the title, First Principles of Household Management and Cookery, was
a. Lillian Gilbreth. b. Maria Parloa. c.
Christine Frederick. d. Sarah Cowan.
3. Management was part of the discipline of home economics, which was
founded at the held between 1899-1908.
a. Lake Placid Conferences in New York
b. Packard Conferences in Michigan
c. Smith-Lever Conferences in Massachusetts
d. Potomac Conferences in Washington, DC
4. Two of the earliest colleges with residence courses were Stout
Institute in Wisconsin and ________.
a. the University of Illinois b. the University of
Ohio State University
5. ________ known as the father of management and
famous for his time and motion studies, proposed scientific management
principles designed to maximize production efficiency. He is
particularly known for his factory line efficiency studies.
Shellenbarger b. Frederick
Taylor c. Charles
d. John Beatty
6. The concept of improving work methods
in the home is known as
b. optimization. c. work
simplification. d. task reorientation.
7 Although Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879,
only___ % U.S. homes had electricity by 1907.
a. 8 b. 20 c.
35 d. 50
8. One difference between household production and
consumption in the 1890s compared to the 1950s was that:
a. brand names became less important by the 1950s.
b. there were more servants per household in the
c. home delivery of goods became less common in the
d. household work became more difficult in the 1950s.
9. According to Carole Vickers, family/home
management history can be divided into four principal eras.
Era one (1900-1930s) focused on:
a. health, sanitation, hygiene, and household
b. household equipment and task management.
c. values and decision making.
d. the systems approach to total quality management.
10. In 1925, Congress passed the _________ which provided funds for
economic and sociological investigations to develop and improve rural
a. Goebel Act b. Pumell
Act c. McCullough Act d. Warren Act
11. One of the most studied topics in management is:
12. ________ is an organized system of ideas or beliefs
that can be measured; it is a system of assumptions or principles.
a. Knowledge b.
Theory c. Wisdom d.
13. The place or point where independent systems or
diverse groups interact is called the
a. interface b.
boundary c. subsystem d. locus
14. __________ systems are adaptive to change and are
a. Morphostatic b. Input c.
Morphogenic d. Throughput or transformation
15. ________ are events or goals that require action.
a. Sequences b.
Resources c. Strategies
16. ____________ is information put into the system
that indicates that the system is deviating from its normal course and
that corrective measures may be necessary if the steady state is to be
a. Positive feedback b. Negative
17 A tendency toward disorder or randomness is called:
a. homeostasis. b.
cybernetics. c. entropy. d.
18. According to McCubbin and colleagues,
families have the ability to recover quickly from a misfortune, trauma,
or transitional event, an ability referred to as
a. cognition. b. synergy. c.
buoyancy d. clarity.
19. According to Monica McGoldrick, the
"family" comprises the emotional system of:
a. at least three and increasingly four
generations. b. two generations.
c. one generation.
d. one person
20. The average grocery store offers __________ different
b. 10,000 c. more than
30,000 d. none of the above
21. According to Paolucci, et al. the family
ecosystem has three basic elements Which of the following is not
one of these elements?
a. organisms b.
environments c. family organization
22. The possibility of experiencing harm, suffering,
danger, or loss is known as:
risk. b. locus of
control. c. morphogenesis. d.
23. Compare and contrast typical homes and household
tasks in 1900, 1950, and 2000
24. The study of
management has gone through many eras or stages. Describe
the four eras designated by Carole Vickers.
25. "There is nothing so
practical as a good theory according to Kurt Lewin. Explain why
theory is useful and describe the basics of systems theory and economic
theorya. In the twentieth century .some of the most
important advances have been in the field of aviation.
Topic 3 Questions
1. Who was the first aviator to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean
Earhart b. F. Scott
Fitzgerald c. Charles
Lindbergh d. James T. Thompson
2. A person's judgments are based on the value
meanings derived from his or her feelings, known as the:
a. affective domain. b. cognitive
domain. c. construct domain. d. instinctual domain.
3. ________ are concepts that may express values,
serve as a means of evaluation, or demonstrate feeling in regard to
some idea, person, object, event, situation, or
relationship. They are expressions of:
a. likes and dislikes. b. Attitudes
Behaviors c. Goal orientations d.
4. Which of the following is not one of the ways values are classified?
a. absolute and
relative b. intrinsic and
c. traditional and prophetic d.
instrumental and terminal
5. Based on the findings from the VALS (Values
and Lifestyles) research, consumers were divided into four major
groups. The largest group, making up about 67 percent of
the population was designated the:
a. need-driven consumers. b.
outer-directed consumers. c. inner-directed
consumers. d. spatial-driven consumers.
6. In VALS 2, three primary self-orientations are
designated. In which of these are individuals guided in
their choices by their beliefs and principles rather than by feelings,
events, or desire for approval?
a. principle-oriented b.
pattern-oriented d. action-oriented
7. Complete the following statement: A study conducted by
Hilton Hotels Corporation found that 48 percent of the people living on
the West Coast of the United States make time for their ideal weekend:
a. compared with 38 percent of those on the East
Coast. b. compared with 72 percent of those on the
c. compared with 54 percent of
d. compared with 10 percent of Southerners.
8. ________- play a fundamental role in forming children's values
Societies b. Families,
especially parents c. Schools,
especially other students d. Communities
9. The process by which children learn the rules of a
society is called:
a. fraternization b.
socialization d. acculturation
10. Along with the dominant social and cultural trends,
there are also subdominant trends.
For example, the value of (going back to basics) appears to run
a. traditionalism b.
spiritualism c. acculturation d.
11. Ajzen and Fishbein developed a theory of reasoned action that
assumes that human beings are:
a. irrational most of the time.
b. usually quite rational and make systematic use of
the information available to them.
c. usually brand loyal.
d. mostly emotion-driven.
12. ________ are repetitive, often unconscious patterns of
a. Goals b.
Values c. Attitudes d. Habits
13. According to the textbook, goals vary in all but which of the
a. intensity b.
complexity c. mobility d. timing
14. _______________ goals usually take more than one year to achieve.
a. Short-term b.
Intermediate c. Long-range d.
15. If a person's primary goal is to attain a college degree
efficiently in four years, then his or her secondary goals would
probably include all but which of the following?
a. being accepted into a
college b. passing courses c.
d. completing graduation requirements
16 Ninety percent of the reported studies in
psychology have found that goal setting:
a. has negative or partially negative effects on
task performance. b. has positive or partially
positive effects on task performance.
c. has mostly negative effects on task
d. has little
or no effect on task performance.
17 According to author Martin Seligman, ___________
is necessary for a good, successful life and for achieving goals.
a. optimism b.
wisdom d. freedom
18. Which of the following is not a suggested
way to attain goals?
a. set specific goals and prioritize them
b. state goals clearly and positively
c. forecast possible future events and the resources
that will be needed to deal with them
d. give up when crises happen
19. In a classic study, David McClelland, a Harvard
psychologist, stressed that individuals vary in their need for:
_________ achievement, which he called
b. love and affection.
d. adventure and thrill-seeking.
20. Studies of college students find that:
a. women were about as goal oriented as men.
b. women cared more about their future careers than
c. men were more likely to sacrifice financial
success for a relationship
d. physical fitness was more important to women than
21. The two kinds of motivation covered in the textbook are:
a. internal and external. b.
intrinsic and extrinsic. c. maternal and
paternal d. Type A and Type B.
22. Rewards are most effective if they are:
a. general, given to many people.
b. given after good work performance. c. valued by
23. How are values different from attitudes? Give examples of each.
24. What is the difference between
goals and habits? Define each and give examples.
25. A study of survivors of
concentration camps found that those who had a purpose for living and
well-defined goals were able to withstand greater deprivation,
including starvation and torture, than those without goals.
Explain why this would happen.
Topic 4 Questions
1. ____________ is the ability to recognize and use
a. Resourcefulness b. Helpfulness c.
Intuitiveness d. Efficiency
2. ____________ resources are the skills, talents, and abilities that
a. Material b. Capital c.
Human d. Cultural
3. According to the textbook, one estimate
states that although everyone has human capital and the potential for
growth anddevelopment, only ____ percent of human potential is used.
a. 1-2 b.
4-10 c. 25-30 d. 40-50
4. According to the National Restaurant Association, the
most likely meal to be eaten out is:
a. breakfast. b. lunch. c. dinner . d. between meal
5. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
a. Resource stock is the sum of readily available
resources an individual possesses.
b. Scarcity means a shortage or an insufficient
amount or supply.
c. Intangible resources are real, touchable, or
capable of being appraised.
d. Human capital is the sum total of human
resources, all the capabilities and traits that people use to achieve
goals and other resources.
6. According to Juliet Schor, author of The Overworked American:
a. Americans report they have 40 hours of leisure a
b. Americans now are working longer than they were
forty years ago.
c. U.S. manufacturing employees work less than their
counterparts in West Germany and France.
d. If present trends continue, by 2006 Americans
will be spending less time at their jobs than they did in the 1920s
7. The highest-valued alternative that must be
sacrificed to satisfy a want or attain something is called:
a. scarcity. b. opportunity
cost. c. availability.
8. Which of the following terms fits in both blanks?
____________exists as long as people cannot purchase everything at zero
price. Theoretically, the richest person and the poorest person
a. abundance b.
availability d. scarcity
9. The highest valued alternative that must be sacrificed
to satisfy a want or to attain something is called:
a. human capital b.
availability c. opportunity
cost d. choice
10. According to the law of __________ as the price of a good or
service rises, the quantity of that good or service falls.
a. demand b.
welfare c. government d. marketing
11. __________ resources are owned and/or controlled by an
individual, family, or group.
a. Public b.
Private c. Community d.
12. In 1776, Adam Smith, in his book An Inquiry into the
Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, used the term ___________
to suggest that government should leave business alone.
a. caveat emptor b.
laissez-faire c. caveat
vendor d. ex libris
13. Which of the following is not a typical economic
a. household equipment b.
credit c. money d. debt
14. ________ percent of employees work in medium and larger U.S.
firms and businesses
a. 10 b.
25 c. 50 d. 95
15. Resources have certain characteristics or attributes.
Which of the following is not one of them?
a. resources are
sometimes resources are exchangeable
c. human resources are
sometimes resources can be stored
16. ______________ attributes refer to the knowledge aspects of
a. Affective b.
Cognitive c. Psychomotor d.
17. The Foa & Foa Resource Model demonstrates the
a. interdependence of
resources b. limitation of resources.
c. erratic nature of
resources. d. history of resource use.
18. The Resource Model of Motivation (RMM) is
founded upon the premise that in order to function properly, humans:
a. engage in economic activities that involve the
exchange of goods and money.
b. engage in exchange activities to protect and
enhance certain fundamental assets (resources).
c. engage in affective exchanges.
d. must think of others first.
19. In the Resource Model of Motivation (RMM), ________ is in the
a. stress b.
education c. self-concept d. time
20. _______________ is the value, worth,
applicability, productiveness, or usefulness of a resource.
a. Utility b.
Capital d. Credit
21 E. F. Schumacher, author of Small is
Beautiful, says that ________ is the most vital of all resources.
a. culture b.
beauty c. education d. honesty
22. is the sum of all socially transmitted behavior patterns,
beliefs, arts, expectations, institutions, and all other products of
human work and thought characteristic of a group, community, or
a. Culture b.
Technology c. Folklore d. Society
23. What do members of cultural groups share? How is culture
transmitted? What are norms
24. During the past 20 years,
families and households in most of the world have undergone vast
changes. List and explain some of these changes. Why
do you think fathers are spending more time with their children?
25. Why has the United States
been called a throw-away society? How does consumption in the United
States compare with consumption in China.