School of Family and Consumer Sciences
Instructor: David D. Witt, Ph.D.
Topic 9 -Time Management
TIME AS A RESOURCE
In economics, time is considered as a nonrenewable resource because it is a scare commodity. Time is saved, spent, and allocated to get something wanted. A resourceful person uses time effectively or imaginatively, especially in difficult situations.Monet is sometimes traded off for time, as when a busy person hires someone to clean the house or take care of the yard
Discretionary Versus Nondiscretionary Time
Suggestions to help in managing both discretionary and nondiscretionary time:
The ABC Method Of Time Control
Many books have been published that
an individual and families can improve their use of time. One of the
known book is “ How to Get Control Of Your Time and Your Life” by Alan
· Set short –term and long-term goalsLakeins encourages the use of the ABC method in which
· A activities are the top priority and have to accomplished firstAnother important concept in Lakein’ s book is that daily time should be directly related to goals.
· Drugs and alcohol consumption alters time perceptionEstimating Duration
Although perception and estimations of time vary from person to person, time itself is one of the most accurately measured physical quantities. Study of time can be a very practical subject. In the early 20th century, time and motion studies were conducted in offices and factories throughout the “U.S. These studies evaluated industrial performance and analyzed the time spent in producing a product such as car.
Fredrick Taylor (1911) who is widely considered to be the father of time and motion introduced the idea of measuring time precisely in order to examine specific activities with the intent of finding way to reduce the amount of time they required. These studies aimed at improving efficiency through saving time and energy used. As a result of these findings assembly line work in factories became more standardized and efficient. Many of principles and methods derived from industrial performance studies, such as those conducted by Taylor, were applied to household efficiency.
The time and product use of individuals and the families are being studies by manufactures and marketers of appliances, food and household products. They are interested in identifying the trends in who does what in home and learning how many minutes a day are spent in preparing food, eating, cleaning up etc so that they can tailor their product and advertising to fit current household practices and hence increase the sale by bettering consumer needs. For example, a fast food chain might use several methods of inquiry, including
· In restaurant consumer surveyTime measurement is also has practical applications in evaluating skills such as word processing (no. of words per min), sales (no of sales per min), library uses (no of books checked out per week) and etc. The amount of Social Security retired people receive is based on the number of years they have been employed and how much they earned. Divorce Settlements take into account the number of year of marriage. Even on daily basis people try to determine if they will be on time for work, school and appointment. People are engaged in time management from the moment they wake up until they go to sleep. Even sleeping is a times event ending when one awakens at sound of radio or an alarm clock.
Perception Of Time Across Cultures
1) Linear- Separable Model of Time - Linear-separable
processing is related to economic time.
2) Procedural – Traditional Model of
- Individuals, with a procedural perception consider the actual steps,
event, or procedure to be more important than time spent in the
Being prompt is not as critical as doing things correctly or when
are right. This model is characterized by staying with a task until it
is completed no matter how much time it takes.
3) Circular- Traditional Model of Time
circular or cyclical perception emphasizes the repetitive nature of
Some Effects of Cultural Differences.
Latin American provides an example of how perception of time can affect consumption behavior. Latin Americans generally view time as less concrete and less subject to scheduling than North Americans. Consequently, appointments and meetings rarely start at the schedule time. Also Latin Americans do not value eating fast in an impersonal setting. Thus Wimpy- Kentucky Fried Chicken, and McDonald had difficult time penetrating in the Latin American market.
In circular perception, the concept of the future is vague. Southeast Asian, for instance, tends to think of the future in terms of hundreds or thousands of years. This perception leads to a different sense of urgency. In Asian countries, businesses are planned for the long run over several decades rather than for the short term. Whereas Japanese have been very receptive to many American- European time –saving convenience goods.
Research studies done on 48 East and Southeast Asian students show that they most frequently used procedural processing followed by circular and rarely used linear procedural. On the other hand U.S. students appeared to use linear processing most, followed by procedural processing and then circular processing. U.S. students were more likely to view time as valuable and limited commodity- something to be scheduled- whereas the Asian students were more concerned with the task itself rather than time.
Biological Time Patterns
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE TIME
use data are gathered in four ways:
2) Recall Method
3) Observation Method
4) Self- observation control-signaling
Using a combination of methods with built-in crosschecks is generally considered to be the best way to obtain accurate data.
Qualitative time measurement
1. Strangers, coworkers, fellow students. This is “ public” space where one’s actions are evaluated by others and where one competes for resources.
2. Family and friends. This is a place of kinship, special bonds, and home.
3. Solitude. Time spent alone.
In technological societies, more time spent alone than was common in tribal societies, where being alone was considered dangerous. According to Csiksezentmihalyi (1997) it important to learn to tolerate solitude or else the quality of our lives is bound to suffer. The popularity of chat rooms and email may be partially explained by this need to connect with others even if physically alone. Prior to 1970’s all time –use measurements was quantitative. Since then lot of studies have used both qualitative and quantitative measures. Asking qualitative questions also lets the researcher to know how the individual feels; thus, the burden of interpretation is no longer on the researcher where obvious bias or perceptual errors could occur.
As an example of a study investigating the qualitative aspect of time use, Hafstorm and Paynter (1991) studies data collected on farm wives in 7 states and found although farm wives appeared to assume a large share of the workload- a combination of home, farm, and labor force- they remained satisfies with management in the home and the farm. They also found that satisfaction with time use was affected by variety of factors, including the wife’s sense of control over her own life. So, even though wives reported being overloaded with work and family demands, they still were relatively satisfies with their lifestyle and accepted its complexity.
Demands, Sequencing, And Standards
It is not necessary that people buy and use appliances because they want to save time. Research done in U.S. suggests that the average women aged 18 to 50 spend 57 minutes a day cooking. The difference between women with microwave ovens and those without is just 4 minutes.
Demands on time within families and organization may conflict. For example, one child may want parents to attend the school play whereas the other sibling wants the parent to attend soccer game. Stretching limited resources, including time, to meet conflicting demands is a dilemma all people experience.
Families with young children or disabled family members may face even greater demand on the family, and meeting those demands take time. Unfortunately, demands are often strongest when resources are weakest, as in a young married couple who are trying to set up a household, have children, and become established in their career- all at the same time. Time demands are also high for families trying to balance more established careers and home responsibilities.
Besides external demands to the person, there are internal demands as well. All individuals have a tempo, meaning a time pattern or pace that feels comfortable to them. Some people may be on “ high energy, always on the go, or hyper,” whereas there are some people who are “ slow, thoughtful, and deliberate.” Successful organizations thrive on having members with both types of temperaments.
Sometimes demands for time are uneven and difficult to manage. For example, bicycle stores may be empty during weekdays, but crowded on weekends with children and parents
Demands can range from none to all to excessive and can be irregular as well. When shopping, customers should gauge when demand will low, lines short, and stores uncrowded. All the above example illustrate, the concept of demand can be applied to time as well as to other constructs and contexts, such as shopping demands and energy demands.
Sequencing may be simple or complex. In a simple sequence, one person performs one task. A complicated sequencing plan involves many people and many tasks. A large family with children at different ages will have more trouble completing tasks and holding to a set sequence than a person living alone,
Schedules, which are sets of time- bounded activities, are made up of two mental processes
Time- tagging is a mental estimation of the sequences that should take place, the approximate amount of time required for each activity in the sequence, and the starting and ending times for each activity. Repeatedly following the same sequences with the same sequences with same starting and ending points leads to a procedural routines where the person no longer has to think about individual steps in the sequence. For example, while learning how to drive a car at first one is slow and has to think carefully about each step. In time, the sequence becomes faster and more natural. Schedules and sequences can be mental or they can be written, as in a schedule of college classes or a program of forthcoming events.
Many indivuals, and families feel overwhelmed by demands on their time. They feel short of time because of the phenomenon of multitasking, which is becoming more and more than norm.
Tasks can be divided into three main categories:
On a given day, people use all three types of sequencing. Each individual ma favor a certain type of sequencing based on his or her style, pace, or tempo. Most people go through a certain sequence of events when they first awaken in the morning like going to bathroom, taking a shower etc. As the day progresses, they move on to more complicated sequencing involving dovetailing and overlapping activities. Then at bedtime they revert back to more habitual sequential mode.
In today’s fast- moving world, individuals
often do not have enough time or energy to meet the standards they
like to in keeping their home cleans, exercising regularly, meeting
needs, and accomplish work.
Standards have both qualitative and quantitative aspects:
Quantity refers to a measurable amount and quality refers to a degree or grade of excellence, the essential character or nature of something.
Quantitatively, teacher may set a standard of grading 59-math papers an hour. Qualitatively, a person may want his or her food to b prepared to a certain standard of nutrition, taste, and attractiveness.
Conflict arises in homes and organizations when people have different standards. For example in a restaurant, if food is not prepared to the expected standards, a customer may send the food back to the kitchen. In a home, some family members may be perfectly happy living in a mess that other members cannot tolerate.
Standards of quality and quantity form the criteria for action. Demand leads to an alteration of standards. For example s student preparing for an exam cannot cook dinner. Preparing for test demands all their time and attention, so housel old can wait.
The more complex the lifestyle and the greater number of people involved, the more regular standard have to be if everyone involved is going to survive and thrive
· Latest public poll info from Gallup Organization- http://www.gallup.com/
· IBM – company is offering variable hours- http://www.ibm.com/diversity